, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 445–467

The mutual information of university-industry-government relations: An indicator of the Triple Helix dynamics


DOI: 10.1023/A:1026253130577

Cite this article as:
Leydesdorff, L. Scientometrics (2003) 58: 445. doi:10.1023/A:1026253130577


University-industry-government relations provide a networked infrastructure for knowledge-based innovation systems. This infrastructure organizes the dynamic fluxes locally and the knowledge base remains emergent given these conditions. Whereas the relations between the institutions can be measured as variables, the interacting fluxes generate a probabilistic entropy. The mutual information among the three institutional dimensions provides us with an indicator of this entropy. When this indicator is negative, self-organization can be expected. The self-organizing dynamic may temporarily be stabilized in the overlay of communications among the carrying agencies. The various dynamics of Triple Helix relations at the global and national levels, in different databases, and in different regions of the world, are distinguished by applying this indicator to scientometric and webometric data.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publisher/Akadémiai Kiadó 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)AmsterdamThe Netherlands