Abdul-Wahab A S and Rice E L 1967 Plant inhibition by Johnson grass and its possible significance in old-field succession. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94, 486–497.
Aerts R and Chapin III F S 2000 The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns. Adv. Ecol. Res. 30, 1–67.
Agarwal A R, Gahlot A, Verma R and Rao P B 2002 Effects of weed extracts on seedling growth of same varieties of wheat. J. Environ. Biol. 23, 19–23.
Agrawal A A 2000 Communication between plants: this time it's real. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15, 446.
Alsaadawi I S, Sakeri F A K and Al-Dulaimy S M 1990 Allelopathic inhibition of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and other plant species by Euphorbia prostrata L. J. Chem. Ecol. 16, 2747–2754.
Arimura G-I, Ozawa R, Shimoda T, Nishioka T, Boland W and Takabayaski J 2000 Herbivory-induced volatiles elicit defence genes in lima bean leaves. Nature 406, 512–515.
Baldwin I T and Schultz J C 1983 Rapid changes in tree leaf chemistry induced by damage: evidence for communication between plants. Science 221, 277–279.
Bais H P, Walker T S, Stermitz F R, Hufbauer R A and Vivanco J M 2002 Enantiomeric-dependent phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of (±)-catechin. A rhizosecreted racemic mixture from spotted knapweed. Plant Physiol. 128, 1173–1179.
Barbour M G, Burk J H, Pitts W D, Gilliam F S and Schwartz M W 1999 Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.
Bell D T and Koeppe D E 1972 Noncompetitive effects of giant foxtail on the growth of corn. Agron. J. 64, 321–325.
Burke M J W and Grime J P 1996 An experimental study of plant community invasibility. Ecology 77, 776–790.
Callaway R M 2002 The detection of neighbors by plants. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 104–105.
Callaway R M and Aschehoug E T 2000 Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290, 521–523.
Coley P D, Bryant J P and Chapin III F S 1985 Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science 210, 895–899.
Conway W C, Smith L M and Bergan J F 2002 Potential allelopathic interference by the exotic Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum). Am. Midl. Nat. 148, 43–53.
Dalton B R 1999 The occurrence and behavior of plant phenolic acids in soil environment and their potential involvement in allelochemical interference interactions: methodological limitations in establishing conclusive proof of allelopathy. In Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemical Interactions. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and C L Foy. pp. 57–74. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Darwin C 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. John Murray, London.
Davis M A, Grime J P and Thompson K 2000 Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J. Ecol. 88, 528–534.
De Candolle A P 1832 Physiologie Vegetale. Bechet Jeune, Paris, France.
del Moral R 1972 On the variability of chlorogenic acid concentration. Oecologia 9, 289–300.
Dietz H, Steinlein T, Winterhalter P and Ullmann I 1996 Role of allelopathy as a possible factor associated with the rising of dominance of Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) in some native plant assemblages. J. Chem. Ecol. 22, 1797–1811.
Ehrlich P R and Raven P H 1964 Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18, 586–608.
El-Ghareeb R M 1991 Suppression of annuals by Tribulus terrestris in an abandoned field in the sandy desert of Kuwait. J. Veg. Sci. 2, 147–154.
Elmore C D 1985 Assessment of the allelopathic effects of weeds on field crops in the humid midsouth. In The Chemistry of Allelopathy. Ed. A C Thompson. pp. 21–32. American Chemical Society, Washington.
Elton C S 1958 The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Metheun, London.
Fletcher R A and Renney A J 1963 A growth inhibitor found in Centaurea spp. Can. J. Plant Sci. 43, 475–481.
Freeland W J and Janzen D H 1974 Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. Am. Nat. 108, 269–289.
Gersani M, Brown S, O'Brien E E, Maina G M and Abramsky Z 2001 Tragedy of the commons as a result of root competition. J. Ecol. 89, 660–669.
Gershenzon J 1984 Changes in the levels of plant secondary metabolites under water and nutrient stress. Recent Adv. Phytochem. 18, 273–320.
Gillet J B 1962 Pest pressure, an underestimated factor in evolution. In Systematics Association Publication No. 4, Taxonomy and Geography. pp. 37–46.
Goodnight C J 1990 Experimental studies of community evolution II: the ecological basis of the response to community selection. Evolution 44, 1625–1636.
Goslee S C, Peters D P C and Beck K G 2001 Modeling invasive weeds in grasslands: the role of allelopathy in Acroptilon repens invasion. Ecol. Modell. 139, 31–45.
Grant D W 2000 Influence of Russian knapweed on four native grasses. M.S. Thesis, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, Colorado, US.
Grime J P 1977 Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am. Nat. 111, 1169–1194.
Gurevitch J, Scheiner S M and G A Fox 2002 The Ecology of Plants. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Harper J L 1977 Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, London.
Herms D A and Mattson W J 1992 The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Q. Rev. Biol. 67, 283–335.
Huang P M, Wang M C and Wang M K 1999 Catalytic transformation of phenolic compounds in the soil. In Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemical Interactions. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and C L Foy. pp. 287–306. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Kaminsky R 1981 The microbial origin of the allelopathic potential of Adenostoma fasciculatum H. & A. Ecol. Monogr. 51, 365–382.
Kanchan S D and Jayachandra 1979 Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. I. Exudation of inhibitors through roots. Plant Soil 53, 27–35.
Kanchan S D and Jayachandra 1980 Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. IV. Identification of inhibitors. Plant Soil 55, 67–75.
Karachi M and Pieper R D 1987 Allelopathic effects of kochia on blue grama. J. Range Manage. 40, 380–381.
Karban R, Baldwin I T, Baxter K J, Lane G and Felton G W 2000 Communication between plants: induced resistance in wild tobacco plants following clipping of neighboring sagebrush. Oecologia 125, 66–71.
Keay J, Rogers W E, Lankau R and Siemann E 2000 The role of allelopathy in the invasion of the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum). Tex. J. Sci. 52, 57–64.
Keeley J E 1988 Allelopathy. Ecology 69, 293–294.
Keeley J E and Fotheringham C J 1997 Trace gas emissions in smoke-induced seed germination. Science 276, 1248–1251.
Kelsey R G and Bedunah D J 1989 Ecological significance of allelopathy for Centaurea species in the northwestern United States. In The Proceedings of the Knapweed Symposium. pp. 10–32. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.
Kelsey R G and Locken L J 1987 Phytotoxic properties of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). J. Chem. Ecol. 13, 19–33.
Komai K and Tang C 1989 A chemotype of Cyperus rotundus in Hawaii. Phytochemistry 28, 1883–1886.
Komai K, Tang C and Nishimoto R K 1991 Chemotypes of Cyperus rotundus in Pacific rim and basin: distribution and inhibitory activities of their essential oils. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 1–8.
Korhammer S A and Haslinger E 1994 Isolation of a biologically active substance from rhizomes of quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould]. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42, 2048–2050.
Krogmeier M J and Bremmer J M 1989 Effects of phenolic acids on seed germination and seedling growth in soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils 8, 116–122.
Letourneau D and Heggeness H G 1957 Germination and growth inhibitors in leafy spurge foliage and quackgrass rhizomes. Weeds 5, 12–19.
Livingston B E, Britton J C and Reid F R 1905 Studies on the properties of an unproductive soil. Bulletin 28, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Lonsdale W M 1999 Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80, 1522–1536.
Mack R N, Simberloff D, Lonsdale W M, Evans H, Clout M and Bazzaz F A 2000 Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol. Appl. 10, 689–710.
Maddox D M, Mayfield A and Poritz N H 1985 Distribution of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens). Weed Sci. 33, 315–327.
Mahall B E and Callaway R M 1991 Root communication among desert shrubs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 874–876.
Mahall B E and Callaway R M 1992 Root communication mechanisms and intracommunity distributions of two Mojave Desert shrubs. Ecology 73, 2145–2151.
Maron J L and Connor P G 1996 A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia 105, 302–312.
Maron J L and Vilà M 2001 When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence from the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oikos 95, 361–373.
McKey D, Waterman P G, Mbi C N, Gartlan J S and Struhsaker T T 1978 Phenolic content of vegetation in two African rain forests: ecological implications. Science 202, 61–63.
Muir A D and Majak W 1983 Allelopathic potential of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) extracts. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63, 989–996.
Muller C H 1966 The role of chemical inhibition (allelopathy) in vegetational composition. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 93, 332–351.
Muller C H 1969 Allelopathy as a factor in ecological process. Vegetatio 18, 348–357.
Nath R 1988 Parthenium hysterophorus L. – a review. Agric. Rev. 9, 171–179.
Osvald H 1948 Toxic exudates from the roots of Agropyron repens. J. Ecol. 39, 192–193.
Pandey D K 1994 Inhibition of salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) by parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). II. Relative effect of flower, leaf, stem, and root residue on salvinia and paddy. J. Chem. Ecol. 20, 3123–3131.
Pugnaire F I and F Valladares (Eds) 1999 Handbook of Functional Plant Ecology. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Quayyum H A, Mallik A U, Leach D M and Gottardo C 2000 Growth inhibitory effects of nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) on rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. J. Chem. Ecol. 26, 2221–2231.
Rice E L 1964 Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing and nitrifying bacteria by seed plants. Ecology 45, 824–837.
Rice E L 1974 Allelopathy. Academic Press, New York.
Rice E L 1995 Biological Control of Weeds and Plant Diseases: Advances in Applied Allelopathy. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK.
Ridenour W M and Callaway R M 2001 The relative importance of allelopathy in interference: the effects of an invasive weed on a native bunchgrass. Oecologia 126, 444–450.
Robinson T 1974 Metabolism and function of alkaloids in plants. Science 184, 430–435.
Sakai A K, Allendorf F W, Holt J S, Lodge D M, Molofsky J, With K A, Baughman S, Cabin R J, Cohen J E, Ellstrand N C, Mc-Cauley D E, O'Neil P, Parker I M, Thompson J N and Weller S G 2001 The population biology of invasive species. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32, 305–332.
Schenk H J, Callaway R M and Mahall B E 1999. Spatial root segregation: are plants territorial? Adv. Ecol. Res. 28, 146–180.
Schreiner O and Reed H S 1907 The production of deleterious excretions by roots. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 34, 279–303.
Schreiner O and Reed H S 1908 The toxic action of certain organic plant constituents. Bot. Gaz. 45, 73–102.
Selleck G W 1972 The antibiotic effects of plants in laboratory and field. Weed Sci. 20, 189–194.
Siemens D H, Garner S H, Mitchell-Olds T and Callaway R M 2002 Cost of defense in the context of plant competition: Brassica rapa may grow and defend. Ecology 83, 505–517.
Spring O and Hager A 1982 Inhibition of elongation growth by two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Helianthus annuus. Possible molecular mechanism. Planta 156, 433–440.
Stachon W J and Zimdahl R L 1980 Allelopathic activity of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) in Colorado. Weed Sci. 28, 83–86.
Steenhagen D A and Zimdahl R L 1979 Allelopathy of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). Weed Sci. 27, 1–3.
Steffens J C, Roark J L, Lynn D G and Riopel J L 1983 Host recognition in parasitic angiosperms: use of correlation spectroscopy to identify long-range coupling in an haustorial inducer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 1669–1671.
Steinlein T, Dietz H and Ullmann I 1996 Growth patterns of the alien perennial Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) underlying its rising dominance in some native plant assemblages. Vegetatio 125, 73–82.
Stevens K L 1986 Allelopathic polyacetylenes from Centaurea repens (Russian knapweed). J. Chem. Ecol. 12, 1205–1211.
Stevens G A and Tang C-S 1985 Inhibition of seedling growth of crop species by recirculating root exudates of Bidens pilosa L. J. Chem. Ecol. 11, 1411–1425.
Stowe L G 1979 Allelopathy and its influence on the distribution of plants in an Illinois old field. J. Ecol. 67, 1065–1085.
Tang C-S, Cai W-F, Kohl K and Nishimoto R K 1995 Plant stress and allelopathy. In Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes, and Applications. Eds. Inderjit, K M M Dakshini and F A Einhellig. pp. 142–157. American Chemical Society, Washington.
Tinnin R O and Muller C H 1971 The allelopathic potential of Avena fatua: influence on herb distribution. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98, 243–250.
Vaughn S F and Berhow M A 1999 Allelochemicals isolated from tissues of the invasive weed garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). J. Chem. Ecol. 25, 2495–2504.
Wardle D A, Nilsson M-C, Gallet C and Zackrisson O 1998 An ecosystem-level perspective of allelopathy. Biol. Rev. 73, 301–319.
Welbank P J 1960 Toxin production from Agropyron repens. In The Biology of Weeds. Ed. J L Harper. pp. 158–164. Blackwell, Oxford.
Weston L A, Burke B A and Putnam A R 1987 Isolation, characterization and activity of phytotoxic compounds from quackgrass [Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.]. J. Chem. Ecol. 13, 403–421.
Whittaker R H and Feeny P P 1971 Allelochemicals: chemical interactions between species. Science 171, 757–770.
Williams J R 1954 The biological control of weeds. In Report of the Sixth Commonwealth Entomological Congress, London, pp. 95–98.
Williamson G B 1990 Allelopathy, Koch's postulates, and the neck riddle. In Perspectives on Plant Competition. Eds. J B Grace and D Tilman. pp. 143–162. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
Wilson D S 1997 Biological communities as functionally organized units. Ecology 78, 2018–2024.
Yamamoto Y 1995 Allelopathic potential of Anthoxanthum odoratum for invading Zoysia-grassland in Japan. J. Chem. Ecol. 21, 1365–1373.