Replant problems in South Tyrol: role of fungal pathogens and microbial population in conventional and organic apple orchards
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The South Tyrol, the main apple-growing area in Italy, is characterised by intensive soil cultivation. Previous investigations have revealed the existence of replant disorders although the main causes of these have not been evaluated. A survey was carried out in this area with two main aims: to evaluate the role of soil-borne pathogens in apple replant disease and to compare the impact of organic and conventional management on replant diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The experimental sites were chosen to obtain three pairs of contiguous conventional and organic apple orchards. There was a high level of organic matter in both the organic and the conventional apple orchards with no appreciable differences in humic fractions. The soil sickness test with apple seedlings revealed a significant reduction in growth for all soil samples as compared to the peat control. The growth score on soil samples from organic orchards was significantly higher than that obtained on conventional soil. Total fungal population in soil samples was positively correlated to the apple seedlings growth score and negatively correlated to the frequency of root colonisation. Most of the root-colonising pathogens belonged to the well-known root rot complex, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. being the most pathogenic on apple seedlings.
- Anderson J P E and Domsch K H 1975 Measurement of bacterial and fungal contributions to respiration of selected agricultural and forest soils. Can. J. Microbiol. 21, 314–322.
- Anonymous 1976 Glossary of Terms in Soil Science. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. Publication 1459, 44 pp.
- Anonymous 1999 Council Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999 of 19 July 1999 supplementing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs to include livestock production. Official Journal L 222, 24/08/1999 P. 0001 – 0028.
- Braun P G 1995 Effects of Cylindrocarpon and Pythium species on apple seedlings and potential role in apple replant disease. Can. J. Plant Path. 17, 336–341.
- Calderón F J, Jackson L E, Scow KM, Rolston D E. 2000 Microbial responses to simulated tillage in cultivatd and uncultivated soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32, 1547–1559.
- Ciavatta C, Vittori Antisari L and Sequi P 1989 Determination of organic carbon in soils and fertilizers. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal. 20, 759–773.
- Ciavatta C, Govi M, Vittori Antisari L and Sequi P 1991 Determination of organic carbon in aqueous extracts of soils and fertilizers. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 22, 795–807.
- Ciavatta C and Govi M 1993 Use of insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone and isoelectric focusing in the study of humic substances in soils and organic wastes: a review. J. Chromatogr. 643, 261–270.
- Ciavatta C, Govi M, Bonoretti G and Gessa C 1996 Identification of peat and leonardite using humification parameters and isoelectric focusing (IEF): A first approach. Fert. Res. 44, 225–230.
- Dhingra O D and Sinclair J B 1986 Basic Plant Pathology Methods. pp. 179–189. C.R.C., Boca Raton, FL.
- Dullaide S R, Stirling G R, Nukulin A and Stirling A M 1994 The role of nematodes, fungi, bacteria and abiotic factors in the etiology of apple replant problems in the Granite Belt of Queensland. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 43, 1177–1182.
- Erhart E, Burian K, Hart W and Stich K 1999 Suppression of Pythium ultimum by biowaste composts in relation to compost microbial biomass, activity and content of phenolic compounds. J. Phytopathology 147, 299–305.
- Grünwald N J, Workneh F, Hu S and van Bruggen A H C 1997 Comparison of an in vitro and a dumping off assay to test soil for suppressiveness to Pythium aphanidermatum. Eu. J Plant Path. 103, 55–63.
- Grünwald N J, Hu S and van Bruggen A H C 2000 Short-term cover crop decomposition in organic and conventional soils: characterization of soil C, N, microbial and plant pathogen dynamics. Eu. J. Plant Path. 106, 37–50.
- Hoestra H 1968 Replant diseases of apple in the Netherlands. Meledelingen Landboewhogeschool Wageningen 68, 1–105.
- Hoffmann G 1997 Methodenbuch, Band 1, Die Untersuchung von Böden, vierte Auflage, 1. Teillieferung, 2. Teillieferung 1997, VDLUFA-Verlag, Darmstadt.
- Hu S, van Bruggen A H C, Wakeman R J and Grünwald N J 1997 Microbial suppression of in vitro growth of Pythium ultimum and disease incidence in relation to soil C and N availability. Plant Soil 195, 43–52.
- Kronald W C and Stanghellini M E 1988 Clean slide technique for the observation of anastomosis and nuclear condition of Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 78, 820–822.
- Jaffee B A, Abawi G S and Mai W F 1982 Fungi associated with root of apple seedlings grown in soil from apple replant site. Plant Dis. 66, 942–944.
- Jeffers S and Martin S B 1986 Comparison of two selective media for Phytophthora and Pythium species. Plant Dis. 70, 1038–1043.
- Lynch J M and Panting L M 1980 Cultivation and soil biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 29–33.
- Malonay P E, van Bruggen A H C and Hu S 1997 Bacterial communities structure in relation to the carbon environments in lettuce and tomato rhizospheres and in bulk soil. Microbial Ecol. 34, 109–117.
- Manici L M, Babini V and Caputo F 2002 Pythium spp. and total fungi response to green manuring. Proceeding VII ESA Congress pp 383–384, Cordoba, 14–18 July 2002.
- May W F and Abawi G S 1978 Determining the cause and extent of apple, cherry and pear disease under controlled conditions. Phytopathology 68, 1540–1544.
- May W F, Merwin I A and Abawi G S 1994. Diagnosis, etiology and management of replant disorders in New York cherry and apple orchards. Acta Hort. 363, 34–41.
- Mazzola M 1997 Identification and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. Isolated from apple roots and orchard soils. Phytopathology 87, 582–587.
- Mazzola M 1998 Elucidation of the microbial complex having a causal role in the development of apple replant disease in Washington state. Phytopathology 88, 930–938.
- Mazzola M 1999 Transformation of soilmicrobial community structure and Rhizoctonia-suppressive potential in response to apple roots. Phytopathology 89, 920–927.
- Mazzola M and Gu Y-H 2000 Impact of wheat cultivation on microbial communities from replant soil and apple growth in greenhouse trials. Phytopathology 90, 114–119.
- Mazzola M, Granatstein D M, Donald C E and Mullinx K 2001 Suppression of specific apple root pathogens by Brassica napus seed meal amendment regardless of glucosinolate content. Phytopathology 91, 673–679.
- Nelson P E, Tousson T A and Marasas W F O. 1983 Fusarium species. An illustrated manual for identification. The Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 190.
- Nene Y L, Haware M P and Reddy M V 1981. Chickpea diseases, resistance-screening techniques. ICRISAT Bulletin n. 10.
- Patrick Z A, Tousson T A and Wilson J F 1964 Effect of crop residue decomposition products on plant roots. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2, 267–292.
- Postama J, Willensen-de Kline M J E I M and van Elsas J D 2000 Effect of the indigenous microflora on the development of root rot and crown rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwool. Phytopathology 90, 125–133.
- Rickrel D H, Curl E A, Touchton J T and Gordon W B 1992. Crop mulch effect on Rhizoctonia soil infestation and disease severity in conservation tilled cotton. Soil Biol. Biochem. 24 (6), 553–557.
- Samson R A and van Reenen-Hoekstra E S 1988. Introduction to food-borne pathogens. 3th ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. 299 pp.
- Sewell G W F 1981. Effect of Pythium species on the growth of apple and their possible causal role in apple replant disease. Ann. Appl. Biol. 91, 31–42.
- Simon A and Ridge E H 1974 The use of ampicillin in a simplified selective medium for the isolation of fluorescent pseudomonas. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 37, 459–460.
- Thornton H C 1922 On the development of standardizing agar medium for counting soil bacteria with especial regard to repression of spreading colonies. Ann. App. Biol. 9, 241–247.
- Traquair J A 1984 Etiology and control of orchard replant problems: a review. Can. J. Plant Path. 6, 54–62.
- Van der Plank J E 1975 Principles of plant infection. pp. 192. Academic Press, New York.
- Weidong C V, Hotink H A, Smitthener A F and Tuovinen O H 1988 The role of microbial activity in suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology 78, 314–322.
- Replant problems in South Tyrol: role of fungal pathogens and microbial population in conventional and organic apple orchards
Plant and Soil
Volume 256, Issue 2 , pp 315-324
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- apple replant diseases
- organic orchards
- Pythium spp.
- Rhizoctonia solani
- soil-borne pathogens
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Research Institute for Industrial Crops, Via di Corticella 133, 40128, BOLOGNA, Italy
- 2. Department of Agro-environmental Sciences and Technologies, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Viale Fanin 40, 40127, BOLOGNA (, Italy
- 3. Research Centre Laimburg, Vadena, 39040 POSTA ORA (BZ), Italy