Carbon Nanofibers: A New Ultrahigh-Strength Material for Chemical Technology
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- Mordkovich, V.Z. Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering (2003) 37: 429. doi:10.1023/A:1026082323244
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Carbon nanofibers are described as a new ultrahigh-strength material, which is superior to both ordinary carbon fibers and other high-strength materials. The place occupied by nanofibers in the classification of carbon materials is shown, and an analysis is made of the relationship between the structure of a fiber and its useful properties, in particular, the strength and tensile modulus. Studies on the synthesis of nanofibers are reviewed. It is shown that the practically important problem of producing nanofibers of maximum possible length must be solved by controlling the temperature conditions of the reaction. The prospects for introducing nanofibers into the market of high-strength and heat-resistant materials are analyzed. The most likely prospect seems to be the partial replacement of polyacrylonitrile-based fibers by nanofibers, first and foremost, in the fields where the requirements for high strength are particularly stringent due to safety reasons.