Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 215–223

NF-κB in Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

  • Yixue Cao
  • Michael Karin

DOI: 10.1023/A:1025905008934

Cite this article as:
Cao, Y. & Karin, M. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia (2003) 8: 215. doi:10.1023/A:1025905008934


Nuclear factor of κB (NF-κB) is a group of sequence-specific transcription factors that is best known as a key regulator of the inflammatory and innate immune responses. Recent studies of genetically engineered mice have clearly indicated that NF-κB is also required for proper organogenesis of several epithelial tissues, including the mammary gland. Mice have shown severe lactation deficiency when NF-κB activation is specifically blocked in the mammary gland. In addition, there are strong suggestions that NF-κB may play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. Elevated NF-κB DNA-binding activity is detected in both mammary carcinoma cell lines and primary human breast cancer tissues.

NF-κBIKKαmammary gland developmentcyclin D1breast cancer

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yixue Cao
    • 1
  • Michael Karin
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego, La Jolla