International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 1219–1227

The Classical Singularity Theorems and Their Quantum Loopholes

  • L. H. Ford

DOI: 10.1023/A:1025754515197

Cite this article as:
Ford, L.H. International Journal of Theoretical Physics (2003) 42: 1219. doi:10.1023/A:1025754515197


The singularity theorems of classical general relativity are briefly reviewed. The extent to which their conclusions might still apply when quantum theory is taken into account is discussed. There are two distinct quantum loopholes: quantum violation of the classical energy conditions, and the presence of quantum fluctuations of the spacetime geometry. The possible significance of each is discussed.

negative energyquantum fluctuationsingularities

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. H. Ford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of CosmologyTufts UniversityMedford