European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 18, Issue 9, pp 845–854

REVIEW: Epidemiology of age-related maculopathy: a review

  • Redmes van Leeuwen
  • Caroline C.W. Klaver
  • Johannes R. Vingerling
  • Albert Hofman
  • Paulus T.V.M. de Jong
Article

DOI: 10.1023/A:1025643303914

Cite this article as:
van Leeuwen, R., Klaver, C.C., Vingerling, J.R. et al. Eur J Epidemiol (2003) 18: 845. doi:10.1023/A:1025643303914

Abstract

Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is a degenerative disease of the retina and the leading cause of incurable blindness and visual impairment in industrialized countries. By definition, ARM is confined to the age-category above 50 years. The aetiology of ARM is still unknown, despite intensive research on many fronts. In this paper, we provide a review of the epidemiology of ARM. The most prominent findings were an exponential increase in frequency with age, a significant familial and genetic component, and a strong association with smoking. Other risk factors that were found less consistently were atherosclerosis, low intake of antioxidant nutrients, and cataract extraction. Future studies, both observational and experimental, will hopefully identify more risk factors that are amenable to prevention.

Age-related macular degeneration Age-related maculopathy Epidemiology Review 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Redmes van Leeuwen
    • 1
  • Caroline C.W. Klaver
    • 1
    • 2
  • Johannes R. Vingerling
    • 1
    • 2
  • Albert Hofman
    • 1
  • Paulus T.V.M. de Jong
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical CentreRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical CentreRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Centre, RotterdamThe Netherlands; Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute, KNAW, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands