Beck, N. C., Siegel, L. J., Davidson, N. P., Kormeier, S., Breitenstein, A., and Hall, D. G. (1980). The prediction of pregnancy outcome: Maternal preparation, anxiety and attitudinal sets. J. Psychosom. Res. 24: 343–351.
Brewin, C., and Bradley, C. (1982). Perceived control and the experience of childbirth. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 21: 263–269.
Cogan, R., Perkowski, S., and Anderson, A. A. (1988). Memories of labor and birth: Reliability of postpartum questionnaire reports. Percept. Motor Skills 67: 75–79.
Drew, N. C., Salmon, P., and Webb, L. (1989). Mothers', midwives' and obstetricians' views on the features of obstetric care which influence satisfaction with childbirth. Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96: 1084–1088.
Faure, E. A. M. (1991). The pain of parturition. Semin. Perinatol. 15: 342–347.
Katz, J., and Melzack, R. (1992). Measurement of pain. Curr. Concepts Acute Pain Control 10: 229–246.
Kohn, P. M., and MacDonald, J. E. (1992). The survey of recent life experiences: A decontaminated hassles scale for adults. J. Behav. Med. 15: 221–236.
Lowe, N. K. (1987). Individual variation in childbirth pain. J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynecol. 7: 183–192.
Lowe, N. K. (1989). Explaining the pain of active labor: The importance of maternal confidence. Res. Nurs. Health 12: 237–245.
Manning, M. M., and Wright, T. L. (1983). Self-efficacy expectancies, outcome expectancies, and the persistence of pain control in childbirth. J. Personal. Social Psychol. 45: 421–431.
Melzack, R. (1987). The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain 30: 191.
Melzack, R., Kinch, R., Dobkin, P., Lebrun, M., and Taenzer, P. (1984). Severity of labor pain: Influence of physical as well as psychologic variables. Can. Med. J. 130: 579–584.
Melzack, R., Taenzer, P., Feldman, P., and Kinch, R. (1981). Labor is still painful after prepared childbirth. Can. Med. J. 125: 357–363.
Morgan, B. M., Bulpitt, C. J., Clifton, P., and Lewis, P. J. (1982). Analgesia and satisfaction in childbirth (The Queen Charlotte' 1000 mother survey). Lancet 2(8302): 808–811.
Niven, C. (1985). How helpful is the presence of the husband at childbirth? J. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 3: 45–53.
Niven, C., and Gijsbers, K. (1984a). Obstetric and non-obstetric factors related to labor pain. J. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 2: 61–78.
Niven, C., and Gijsbers, K. (1984b). A study of labor pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Social Sci. Med. 19: 1347–1351.
Norr, K. L., Block, C. R., Charles, A., Meyering, S., and Meyers, E. (1977). Explaining pain and enjoyment in childbirth. J. Health Social Behav. 18: 260–275.
Quine, L., Rutter, D. R., and Gowen, S. (1993). Women's satisfaction with the quality of the birth experience: A prospective study of social and psychological predictors. J. Reprod. Infant Psychol. 11: 107–113.
Reading, A. E., and Cox, D. N. (1985). Psychosocial predictors of labor pain. Pain 22: 309–315.
Scott-Palmer, J., and Skevington, S. M. (1981). Pain during childbirth and menstruation: A study of locus of control. J. Psychosom. Res. 25: 151–155.
Stevens, M. J. (1993–1994). Predictors of responses to acute pain. Imaginat. Cognit. Personal. 13: 311–321.
Varner, M. (1992). The Peripartum Stress Scale, Unpublished manuscript, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
Wallston, B. S., Walston, K. A., Kaplan, G. D., and Maides, S. A. (1976). Development and validation of the Health Locus of Control (HLC) scale. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 44: 580–585.