Pisani P, Parkin DM, Munoz N, et al. Cancer and infection: Estimates of the attributable fraction in 1990. Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prevent 1997; 6: 387–400.
Schwartz GG, Reis IM. Is cadmium a cause of human pancreatic cancer? Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prevent 2000; 9: 139–145.
Rosenberg L. Treatment of pancreatic cancer. Int J Pancreatol 1997; 22: 81–93.
Flanders TY, Foulkes WD. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Epidemiology and genetics. J Med Genet 1996; 33: 8889–8898.
Zheng T, Holford TR, Ward BA, et al. Time trend in pancreatic cancer incidence in Connecticut, 1935-1990. Int J Cancer 1995; 61: 622–627.
Lin Y, Tamakoshi A, Wakai K, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Japan. J Epidemiol 1998; 8: 52–59.
Nomiyama K, Ueda K, Kiyohara Y, et al. Malignant neoplasms in the Japanese community of Hisayama: Mortality and changing pattern during a 30-year observation period based on a consecutive autopsy series. J Clin Epidemiol 1996; 49: 45–50.
Adanja B, Gledovic Z, Pekmezovic T, et al. Mortality trends of malignant tumours of digestive organs in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1975-1997. Digest Liver Dis 2000; 32: 386–391.
Conrath SM. The validity of determining pancreatic cancer incidence in the United States by the use of mortality data. Regul Toxicol Pharm 1987; 7: 43–56.
Lee WC, Lin RS. Age-period-cohort analysis of pancreatic cancer mortality in Taiwan, 1971-1986. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 19: 839–847.
Kato I, Kuroishi T, Tominaga S. Descriptive epidemiology of subsites of cancer of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1990; 20: 232–237.
Vutuc C, Waldhoer Th, Haidinger G. Impact of noninvasive imaging techniques on the trend of pancreatic cancer mortality in Austria. Wien Med Wschr 1996; 146: 258–260.
Hirayama T. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1989; 19: 208–215.
Lin RS, Lee WC. Mortality trends of pancreatic cancer: An affluent type of cancer in Taiwan. J Formosan Med Assoc 1992; 91: 1148–1153.
Fernandez E, La vecchia C, Porta M, et al. Trends in pancreatic cancer mortality in Europe, 1955-1989. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 786–792.
Franceschi S, Levi F, Lucchini F, et al. Trends in cancer mortality in young adults in Europe, 1955-1989. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A: 2096–2118.
Tominaga S, Kuroishi T. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 1998; 15: 3–7.
Czernichov P, Lerebours E, Hecketsweiler et al. Epidemiologie temporo-spatiale du cancer du pancreas. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1985; 9: 767–775.
Levi F, Decarli A, La vecchia C. Trends in cancer mortality in Switzerland, 1951-1984. Rev Epidem et Sante Publ 1988; 36: 15–25.
Moolgavkar SH, Stevens RG. Smoking and cancers of bladder and pancreas: Risks and temporal trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 67: 15–23.
Garvin AT, O'Reilly D. Cancer in Northern Ireland by 2002. Ulster Med J 1996; 65: 106–112.
Doll R, Smith PG. Comparison between registries: Age-standardized rates. In: Waterhouse JAH, Muir CS, Shanmugaratnam K, Powell J, Peachman D, Whelan S (eds), Cancer Incidence in five Continents, Vol. IV, IARC Scientific Publication 42. Lyon: IARC, 1982; 671–675.
Black RJ, Bray F, Ferlay J, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in the European Union: Cancer registry data and estimates of the national incidence for 1990. Eur J Cancer 1997; 33: 1075–1107.
Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE, et al. Applied Regression Analysis and other Multivariable Methods. 3rd ed. London: Duxbury Press, 1998.
Coughlin SS, Calle EE, Patel AV, et al. Predictors of pancreatic cancer mortality among a large cohort of United States adults. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 915–923.
Fernandez E, La vecchia C, Decarli A. Attributable risks for pancreatic cancer in northern Italy. Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prevent 1996; 5: 23–27.
Silverman DT. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: A case-control study based on direct interviews. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 2001; 21: 7–25.
Zheng W, Mclaughlin JK, Gridley G, et al. A cohort study of smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary factors for pancreatic cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 477–482.
Kalapothaki V, Tzonou A, Hsieh CC, et al. Tobacco, ethanol, coffee, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, and cholelithiasis as risk factors for pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 375–382.
Howe GR, Jain M, Burch JD, Miller AB. Cigarette smoking and cancer of the pancreas: Evidence from a population-based case-control study in Toronto, Canada. Int J Cancer 1991; 47: 323–328.
Mack TM, Yu MC, Hanisch R, et al. Pancreas cancer and smoking, beverage consumption, and past medical history. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986; 76: 49–60.
Silverman DT, Dunn JA, Hoover RN, et al. Cigarette smoking and pancreas cancer: A case-control study based on direct interviews. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86: 1510–1516.
Gold EB, Gordis L, Diener MD, et al. Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the pancreas. Cancer 1985; 55: 460–467.
Garfinkel L. Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States. Prev Med 1997; 26: 447–450.
Enstrom JE. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among two United States populations. J Clin Epidemiol 1999; 52: 813–825.
Birkett NJ. Trends in smoking by birth cohort by births between 1940 and 1975: A reconstructed cohort analysis of the 1990 Ontario Health Survey. Prev Med 1997; 26: 534–541.
Osler M, Prescott E, Gottschau A, et al. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. Scand J Soc Med 1998; 4: 293–298.
Everhart J, Wright D. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1995; 273: 1605–1669.
Brancati FL, Wang NY, Mead LA, et al. Body weight patterns from 20 to 49 years of age and subsequent risk for diabetes mellitus: The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 957–963.
Moller H, Mellemgaard A, Lindvig K, et al. Obesity and cancer risks: A Danish record-linkage study. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A: 344–350.
Zatonski W, Przewozniak K, Howe GR, et al. Nutritional factors and pancreatic cancer: A case-control study from south-west Poland. Int J Cancer 1991; 48: 390–394.
Saw WM, Rajan U. Epidemiology of obesity: A review. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1997; 26(4): 489–493.
Burke JP, Williams K, Gaskill SP, et al. Rapid rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes from 1987 to 1996: Results from the San Antonio Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 1450–1456.
King H, Rewers M. Diabetes in adults is now a Third World Problem. World Health Organization Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Ethnicity Disease 1993; Suppl 3: S67–S74
Noy A, Bilezikian JP. Clinical review 63: Diabetes and pancreatic cancer: Clues to the early diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 79: 1223–1231.
Yankaskas BC, Staab EV, Rudnick SA, et al. The radiologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: the effect of new imaging techniques. Invest Radiol 1985; 20: 73–78.
Warshaw LA, Fernandez-Del Castillo C. Pancreatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1992; 326(7): 455–465.
Niederau C, Grendell JH. Diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Imaging techniques and tumor markers. Pancreas 1992; 7: 66–86.
Malats N, Real FX, Porta M. DDT and pancreatic cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85: 328–329.
Lyon JL, Robison LM, Moser R. Uncertainty in the diagnosis of histologically confirmed pancreatic cases. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 305–308.
Nieman JL, Holmes FF. Accuracy of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer decreases with increasing age. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989; 37: 97–100.
Spilker B. Worldwide comparability of diagnostic criteria. Drugs News Persp 1992; 6: 406–413.
Schadt ME, Kline TS, Neal HS, et al. Intraoperative pancreatic fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results in 166 patients. Am Surg 1991; 57: 73–75.
Ojajarvi A, Partanen TJ, Ahlbom A, et al. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med 2000; 57: 316–324.
Weiderpass E, Partanan T, Kaaks R, et al. Occurrence, trends, and environmental etiology of pancreatic cancer. Scand J Work Environ Health 1998; 24(3): 165–174.
Lyon JL, Mahoney AW, French TK, et al. Coffee consumption and the risk of cancer of the exocrine pancreas: A case-control study in a low-risk population. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 164–170.
Fernandez E, La vecchia C, Porta M, et al. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pancreas 1995; 11: 185–189.