Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The plasma amino acid profiles of 36 children with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed to determine the impact of diet on amino acid patterns. Ten of the children were on gluten and casein restricted diets administered by parents, while the other 26 consumed unrestricted diets. No amino acid profile specific to autism was identified. However, children with autism had more essential amino acid deficiencies consistent with poor protein nutrition than an age/gender matched control group. There was a trend for children with autism who were on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids including the neurotransmitter precursors tyrosine and tryptophan than both controls and children with autism on unrestricted diets. These data indicate that larger, more focused studies of protein nutrition in children with autism are needed in order to determine the extent to which restricted diets might place the developing brains of children with autism at risk from protein malnutrition. The high rate of tryptophan and tyrosine deficiency in this group is also of concern given their role as neurotransmitter precursors.
- Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (1998). Epidemiology of autism: Prevalence, associated characteristics and implications for research and service delivery. Mental Retard Dev Disability Research Review, 4, 97–103.
- Carvalho, P. H., Kenny, R. D., Carrington, P. H., & Hall, D. E. (2001). Severe nutritional deficiencies in toddlers resulting from health food mild alternatives. Pediatrics, 107(4);http://www. pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/107/4/e46
- D'Eufemia, P., Finocchairo, R., Celli, M., Viozzi, L., Montelone, D., & Gardine, O. (1995). Low serum tryptophan to large neutral amino acids ratio in idiopathic infantile autism. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 49, 288–292. CrossRef
- Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Jr., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J. S., Johnson, C. P., Kallen, R. J., Levy, S. E., Minshew, N. J., Ozonoff, S., Prizant, B. M., Rapin, I., Rogers, S. J., Stone, W. L., Teplin, S., Tuchman, R. F., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord, 29(6), 439–484. CrossRef
- Jackson, M. J., & Garrod, P. J. (1978). Plasma zinc, copper and amino acid levels in the blood of autistic children. J Autism Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 203–208.
- Johnson, R. J., Wiersema, V., & Kraft, I. A. (1974). Hair amino acids in autism. J Autism Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 187–188.
- McBride, P. A., Anderson, G., Hertzig, M., Snow, M., Thompson, S., Khait, V., Shapiro, T., & Cohen, D. (1998). Effects of diagnosis, race and puberty on platelet serotonin levels in autism and mental retardation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 37, 767–776. CrossRef
- McDougle, C. J., Naylor, S. T., Cohen, D. J., Aghajanian, G. K., Heninger, B. R., & Price, L. H. (1996). Effects of tryptophan depletion in drug-free adults with autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 53, 980–983.
- Morena-Fuenmayor, J., Borjas, I., Arrieta, A., Balera, V., & Socorro-Candanoza, I. (1996). Plasma excitatory amino acids in autism. Investigacion Clinica, 37, 113–128.
- O'Banion, D., Armstrong, B., Cummings, R. A., & Stange, J. (1978). Disruptive behavior: A dietary approach. J Autism Childhood Schizophrenia, 8(3), 325–337.
- Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., & Christie, R. B. (1978). Amino compounds and organic acids in CSF, plasma and urine of autistic children. Biological Psychiatry, 13, 575–586.
- Raiten, D. J., & Massaro, T. (1986). Perspectives on the nutritional ecology of autistic children. J Autism Dev Disord, 16, 133–143.
- Reichelt, K. L., Ekrem, J., & Scott, H. (1990). Gluten, milk proteins and autism: dietary intervention effects on behavior and peptide secretion. J Applied Nutrition, 42, 1–11.
- Rolf, L. H., Haarman, F. Y., Grotmeyer, K. H., & Keher, H. (1993). Serotonin and amino acid content of platelets of autistic children. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 312–316.
- Sandler, A. D., Brazdziunas, D., Cooley, W. C., González de Pijem, L., Hirsch, D., Kastner, T. A., Kummer, M. E., Quint, R. D., & Ruppert, E. S. (2001). Committee on Children Disabilities. Technical report: The pediatrician's role in the diagnosis and management of autistic spectrum disorders in children. Pediatrics, 107(5); http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/107/5/e85
- Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., DeVellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). J Autism Dev Disord, 10, 91–103.
- Siegel, B. (1998). Early screening and diagnosis in autism spectrum disorders; the pervasive developmental disorder screening test (PDDST). Paper presented at the State of Science in Autism Screening and Diagnosis Working Conference, June 15–17, Bethesda, MD.
- Smith, T., & Antolovich, M. (2000). Parental perceptions of supplemental interventions received by young children with autism in intensive behavior analytic treatment. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 83–97. CrossRef
- Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., Siegel, B., Szatmari, P., Lord, C., Campbell, M., Freeman, B. J., Cicchetti, D. V., Rutter, M., & Kline, W. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. Am J Psych, 151, 1361–1367.
- Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume 33, Issue 4 , pp 449-454
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Plasma amino acid profile
- gluten restricted diet
- casein restricted diet
- protein nutrition deficiency
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
- 2. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
- 3. University of Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin