Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 319–327

Chloroplasts in envelopes: CO2 fixation by fully functional intact chloroplasts


DOI: 10.1023/A:1024962328483

Cite this article as:
Walker, D.A. Photosynthesis Research (2003) 76: 319. doi:10.1023/A:1024962328483


Dan Arnon, Bob Whatley, Mary Belle Allen, and their colleagues, were the first to obtain evidence for `complete photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts' albeit at rates which were 1% or less of those displayed by the intact leaf. By the 1960s, partly in the hope of confirming full functionality, there was a perceived need to raise these rates to the same order of magnitude as those displayed by the parent tissue. A nominal figure of 100 μmol/mgċchlorophyll/h (CO2 assimilated or O2 evolved) became a target much sought after. This article describes the contributions that Dick Jensen and Al Bassham [(1966) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 56: 1095–1101], and my colleagues and I, made to the achievement of this goal and the way in which it led to a better understanding of the role of inorganic phosphate in its relation to the movement of metabolites across chloroplast envelopes.

Mary Belle Allen Daniel Arnon Carl Baldry Elchanan Bamberger James Al Bassham Chris Bucke carbon assimilation Bill Cockburn Tom Delieu Martin Gibbs Dennis Greenwood Ulrich Heber Hans Heldt Robert Hill history of photosynthesis isolated chloroplasts Richard Jensen oxygen evolution phosphate translocator David Walker Bob Whatley Charles Whittingham 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robert Hill Institute, Animal & Plant Sciences, University of SheffieldUK
  2. 2.NorthumberlandUK (

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