Evaporation ponds as a drainwater disposal management option
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Constructed evaporation ponds are being utilized for disposalof saline subsurface drainage waters in San Joaquin Valley,California. These terminal evaporation ponds are located inhydrologically closed basins and/or regions with no surfacedrainage out of the valley. The saline drainwaters disposedinto the ponds are sodium-sulfate or sodium-sulfate-chloridetype waters and upon desiccation produces mirabilite andhalite. The drainwaters contain excessive levels of traceelements from geochemical origins. The trace element of mostconcern, is selenium because it bioaccumulates in the aquaticfood chain and causes death and deformity of waterbirdsattracted to the pond environment. At the present, the onlyeconomic drainwater disposal option in the southern. portionof the valley is evaporation ponds. The operation of theseponds is heavily regulated by waste discharge requirements toreduce and mitigate wildlife impacts. A case study onevaporation ponds and bird usage from a drainage districtillustrates the extensive monitoring and mitigation required.The prognosis is evaporation basins will be needed for theforeseeable future unless breakthroughs occur in economic andeffective drainwater treatment and drainwater reuseoptions.
- Adams W.J., Brix K.V., Edwards M., Tear L.M., Deforest D.K. & Fairbrother A. Analysis of field and laboratory data to derive selenium toxicity thresholds for birds. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (submitted).
- Amouroux D. & Donard O.F.X. 1996. Maritime emission of selenium to the atmosphere in eastern Mediterranean seas. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 1777–1780.
- Davis D.E., Hanson C.H. & Hansen R.B. Submitted a. Performance of actions to reduce and compensate for impacts of agricultural drainage water evaporation basin operations on wildlife (submitted).
- Davis D.E., Hanson C.H. & Hansen R.B. Submitted b. Design and performance of a compensation wetland habitat managed for American avocet and black-necked stilt nesting (submitted).
- EPA Office of Water. 1998. Report on the peer consultation workshop on selenium aquatic toxicity and bioaccumulation. EPA-822-R-98-007.
- Evans R.S. 1989. Saline water disposal option. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 11: 167–185.
- Evaporation Ponds Technical Committee. 1999. Evaporation ponds. San Joaquin Valley Drainage Implementation Program and University of California Salinity/Drainage Program.
- Fan T.W.-M. & Higashi R.M. 1998. Biochemical fate of selenium in microphytes: natural bioremediation by volatilization and sedimentation in aquatic environments. In: W.T. Frankenberger, Jr. & R.A. Engberg (Eds) Environmental Chemistry of Selenium (Ch 27, pp 545–563). Marcel Dekker, Inc.
- Fan T.W.-M., Higashi R.M. & Lane A.N. 1998. Biotransformations of selenium oxyanion by filamentous cyanophyte-dominated mat cultured from agricultural drainage waters.Environmental Science & Technology 32: 3185–3193.
- Fan, T.W.-M., The S.J., Hinton D.E. & Higashi R.M. 2002. Selenium biotransformations into proteinaceous forms by foodweb organisms of selenium-laden waters in California.Aquatic Toxicology (in press).
- Ford S. 1988. Agricultural drainage evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley. Memorandum Report, California Department of Water Resources.
- Gao S., Tanji K.K., Lin Z., Terry N. & Peters D.W. 2002. Selenium removal and mass balance in a constructed flow-through wetland system. Journal of Environmental Quality (in press).
- Grismer M.E., Karajeh F. & Bouwer H. 1993. Evaporation pond hydrology. In: R. Allen & C.M.U. Neale (Eds) Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, An Integrated Approach (pp 580–586). American Society of Civil Engineers Specialty Conference, Park City, Utah, July 21–23, 1993.
- Micklin P.P. 1991. The water management crisis in Soviet Central Asia. The Carl Beck Papers no. 905, Center for Russian and East European Studies, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- Ohlendorf H.M., Skorupa J.P., Saiki M.K. & Barnum D.A. 1993. Food chain transfer of trace elements to wildlife. In: R. Allen & C.M.U. Neale (Eds) Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, An Integrated Approach (596–693). American Society of Civil Engineers Specially Conference, Park City, Utah, July 21–23, 1993.
- Ohlendorf, H.M. In press a. Ecotoxicology of selenium. In: D.J. Hoffman et al. (Ed) Handbook of Ecotoxicology (2nd Edn). Lewis Publishers.
- San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP). 1990. A management plan for agricultural subsurface drainage and related problems on the Westside San Joaquin Valley. US Department of Interior and California Resources Agency.
- Skorupa J.P. 1998. Selenium poisoning of fish and wildlife in nature: Lessons learned from twelve real-world experiences. In: W.T. Frankenberger, Jr. & R.A. Engberg (Eds) Environmental Chemistry of Selenium (Ch 18, pp 315–354). Marcel Dekker, Inc.
- Smith G.R., Tanji K.K., Jurinak J.J. & Burau R.G. 1995. Applications of the Pitzer equationsbased model to hypersaline solutions. In: R.H. Loeppert, A.D. Schwab & S. Goldberg (Eds) Chemical Equilibria and Reaction Models (Ch 7, pp 113–141). Soil Science Society of America Special Publication 42.
- Soil Conservation Service. 1982. Ponds – Planning, design and construction. Agricultural Handbook 590, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
- Tanji K.K. 1990. Accumulation of salts and trace elements in agricultural evaporation ponds.Transaction, 14th International Congress of Soil Science VII: 180–185.
- Tanji K.K. 1997. Evaporation ponds. In: C.A. Madramootoo, W.R. Johnston & L.S. Willardson (Eds) Management of Agricultural Drainage Water Quality, Water Reports 13 (pp 53–57). International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage and UN FAO.
- Tanji K.K., Grismer M.E. & Hanson B.R. 1985. Subsurface drainage evaporation ponds.California Agriculture 39 (9–10): 10–12.
- Tanji K.K., Ong C.G.H., Dahlgren R.A. & Herbel M.J. 1992. Salt deposits in evaporation ponds: An environmental hazard? California Agriculture 46(6): 18–21.
- Tanji K., Ford S., Toto A., Summers J. & Willardson L. 1993. Evaporation ponds: What are they and: why some concerns. In: R. Allen and C.M.U. Neale (Eds) Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, An Integrated Approach (pp 573–579). American Society of Civil Engineers Specialty Conference, Park City, Utah, July 21–23, 1993.
- Trewhella N.W. & Badruddin M. 1991. Evaporation ponds for the disposal of saline drainage effluents in Pakistan. Netherlands Research Assistance Project, Lahore, Pakistan, 64 p.
- Tulare Lake Drainage District. 1993. Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) site specific evaporation basin environmental report on potential adverse impacts to wildlife.
- Westcot D.W., Chilcott J.E. & Smith G. 1993. Pond water sediment and crystal chemistry. In: R. Allen and C.M.U. Neale (Eds) Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, An Integrated Approach (587–594). American Society of Civil Engineers Specialty Conference, Park City, Utah, July 21–23, 1993.
- Evaporation ponds as a drainwater disposal management option
Irrigation and Drainage Systems
Volume 16, Issue 4 , pp 279-295
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- compensation wetland habitat
- discharge regulations
- wildlife hazard
- Author Affiliations
- 1. University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA
- 2. Tulare Lake Drainage District, USA
- 3. Hanson Environmental, Inc, USA
- 4. California Regional Water Quality Control Board-Central Valley Region, USA
- 5. University of California, Riverside, USA