, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 145-159

Comparative particle-induced cytotoxicity toward macrophages and fibroblasts

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

The cytotoxicity caused by the debris resulting from wear of prostheses can produce major damage to tissues around the implant. We have compared particle internalization by macrophages and fibroblastsin vitro and analyzed cell death. J774.2 macrophages and L929 fibroblasts were incubated with 0.43 and 2.81 μm alumina particles or 0.45 and 3.53 μm polystyrene (PS) beads. Incubation of J774.2 cells with alumina particles of both sizes and 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml PS beads significantly decreased cell numbers in a particle concentration-dependent manner. L929 cells were not affected by lower concentrations of 0.43 μm alumina particles (which aggregate at high concentrations) and they internalized 0.45 μm PS beads without any decrease in cell numbers. Particles were more cytotoxic for macrophages than for fibroblasts. Particles caused the size of both types of cells to increase in correlation with cytotoxicity. Trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase release showed cell membrane leakage for both types of cells incubated with PS beads for 24 h. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V–FITC, propidium iodide staining and assay of caspase 3 activity. Macrophage death appeared to depend on both necrosis, caused mainly by 3.53 μm PS beads, and apoptosis, mainly due to 0.45 μm PS beads. The release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 appears to be nonlinearly correlated with cytotoxicity. Thus, the size of the internalized particles affects macrophages and fibroblasts differently, and the increase in cell size can be used as a preliminary criterion of particle cytotoxicityin vitro.