Blane D, Hart CL, Smith GD, et al. Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood. Br Med J 1996; 313: 1434–1438.
Uitenbroek DG, Kerekovska A, Festchieva N. Health lifestyle behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. A study of Varna, Glasgow and Edinburgh. Soc Sci Med 1996; 43: 367–377.
Ross CE. Walking, exercising, and smoking: Does neighborhood matter? Soc Sci Med 2000; 51: 265–274.
Tseng M, Yeatts K, Millikan R, et al. Area-level characteristics and smoking in women. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 1847–1850.
Karvonen S, Rimpela AH. Urban small area variation in adolescents' health behaviour. Soc Sci Med 1997; 45: 1089–1098.
Palosuo H. Health-related lifestyles and alienation in Moscow and Helsinki. Soc Sci Med 2000; 51: 1325–1341.
Hart C, Ecob R, Smith GD. People, places and coronary heart disease risk factors: A multilevel analysis of the Scottish Heart Health Study archive. Soc Sci Med 1997; 45: 893–902.
Kleinschmidt I, Hills M, Elliott P. Smoking behaviour can be predicted by neighbourhood deprivation measures. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995; 49(Suppl. 2): S72–S77.
Wolfe WS, Campbell CC, Frongillo EA Jr, et al. Overweight schoolchildren in New York State: Prevalence and characteristics. AmJ Public Health 1994; 84: 807–813.
Hardy R, Wadsworth M, Kuh D. The influence of childhood weight and socioeconomic status on change in adult body mass index in a British national birth cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 725–734.
Scribner RA, Cohen DA, Fisher W. Evidence of a structural effect for alcohol outlet density: A multilevel analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2000; 24: 188–195.
Rice N, Carr-Hill R, Dixon P, et al. The influence of households on drinking behaviour: A multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med 1998; 46: 971–979.
Duncan C, Jones K, Moon G. Smoking and deprivation: Are there neighbourhood effects? Soc Sci Med 1999; 48: 497–505.
Pickett KE, Pearl M. Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: A critical review. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001; 55: 111–122.
Diez-Roux AV. Investigating neighborhood and area effects on health. AmJ Public Health 2001; 91: 1783–1789.
Diez-Roux AV. Multilevel analysis in public health research. Ann Rev Public Health 2000; 21: 171–192.
Glendinning A, Shucksmith J, Hendry L. Family life and smoking in adolescence. Soc Sci Med 1997; 44: 93–101.
Peters J, Hedley AJ, Lam TH, et al. A comprehensive study of smoking in primary school children in Hong Kong: Implications for prevention. J Epidemiol Community Health 1997; 51: 239–245.
Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Muntaner C, et al. Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: A multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146: 48–63.
Twigg L, Moon G, Jones K. Predicting small-area health-related behaviour: A comparison of smoking and drinking indicators. Soc Sci Med 2000; 50: 1109–1120.
Sundquist J, Malmstrom M, Johansson SE. Cardiovascular risk factors and the neighbourhood environment: A multilevel analysis. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 841–845.
Reijneveld SA. The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 27: 33–40.
Finch BK, Vega WA, Kolody B. Substance use during pregnancy in the state of California, USA. Soc Sci Med 2001; 52: 571–583.
Yen IH, Kaplan GA. Poverty area residence and changes in physical activity level: Evidence fromthe Alameda County Study. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 1709–1712.
van Lenthe FJ, Mackenbach JP. Neighbourhood deprivation and overweight: The GLOBE study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 234–240.
Ellaway A, Anderson A, Macintyre S. Does area of residence affect body size and shape? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 21: 304–308.
Karvonen S, Rimpela A. Socio-regional context as a determinant of adolescents’ health behaviour in Finland. Soc Sci Med 1996; 43: 1467–1474.
Reijneveld SA, Verheij RA, de Bakker DH. The impact of area deprivation on differences in health: Does the choice of the geographical classification matter? J Epidemiol Community Health 2000; 54: 306–313.
Featherstone M. Lifestyle and consumer culture. Theory, Culture Soc 1987; 4: 55–70.
INSEE. Inventaire communal 1998. Paris: INSEE, 2001; 167.
Kelleher KJ, Rickert VI, Hardin BH, et al. Rurality and gender. Effects on early adolescent alcohol use. Am J Dis Child 1992; 146: 317–322.
Palmer RF, Graham JW, White EL, et al. Applying multilevel analytic strategies in adolescent substance use prevention research. Prev Med 1998; 27: 328–336.
Leyland AH, Goldstein H. Multilevel Modelling of Health Statistics. Chichester: Wiley, 2001.
Snijders T, Bosker R. Multilevel Analysis. An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modelling. London: Sage publications, 1999.
Guilbert P, Baudier F, Gautier A, et al. Baromètre Santé 2000. Méthodes. Vanves: Editions CFES, 2001.
Guilbert P, Baudier F, Gautier A. Baromètre Santé 2000. Résultats. Vanves: Edition CFES, 2001.
Etter JF, Duc TV, Perneger TV. Validity of the Fagerstromtest for nicotine dependence and of the Heaviness of Smoking Index among relatively light smokers. Addiction 1999; 94: 269–281.
Rueff B, Crnac J, Darne B. Detection of alcoholic patients using the systematic CAGE autoquestionnaire. In out patients. Presse Med 1989; 18: 1654–1656.
INSEE. Nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles 1994. Paris: INSEE, 1994.
OECD. Taxing wages 2000-2001. Paris: OECD, 2001.
Winkleby MA, Jatulis DE, Frank E, et al. Socioeconomic status and health: How education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. AmJ Public Health 1992; 82: 816–820.