Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 195–209

Effects of Level of Processing on Implicit and Explicit Memory in Depressed Mood


  • José A. Ruiz-Caballero
    • Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
  • Piedad González
    • Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

DOI: 10.1023/A:1024438701205

Cite this article as:
Ruiz-Caballero, J.A. & González, P. Motivation and Emotion (1997) 21: 195. doi:10.1023/A:1024438701205


Recently, several studies have addressed the question of whether depression affects priming in implicit memory tasks. The main aim of this experiment was to assess the presence of a bias for negative information in explicit memory (free recall) and implicit memory (word-stem completion) tasks among subclinically depressed subjects compared to nondepressed subjects, using the typical levels of processing manipulation. The results of this study show the existence of a mood-congruent memory bias for both implicit and explicit memory in depressed subjects. The theoretical implications of these findings for implicit and explicit memory biases associated with depressed mood are discussed.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997