Sex Roles

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 95–109

Gender Identity and Adjustment in Middle Childhood


  • Priscilla R. Carver
    • Department of PsychologyFlorida Atlantic University
  • Jennifer L. Yunger
    • Department of PsychologyFlorida Atlantic University
    • Department of PsychologyFlorida Atlantic University

DOI: 10.1023/A:1024423012063

Cite this article as:
Carver, P.R., Yunger, J.L. & Perry, D.G. Sex Roles (2003) 49: 95. doi:10.1023/A:1024423012063


This article has two purposes. The first is to present a brief (and speculative) account of the developmental origins of the several components of gender identity featured in the multidimensional model of gender identity proposed by Egan and Perry (2001). The second is to offer additional empirical support for the construct and discriminant validity of the various gender identity dimensions. Children (M age = 11.5 years) were assessed for 4 components of gender identity: (a) felt gender typicality, (b) contentment with gender assignment, (c) felt pressure for gender conformity, and (d) intergroup bias (the sentiment that one's own sex is superior). Gender typicality, gender contentedness, and felt pressure (but not intergroup bias) related to indexes of psychosocial adjustment in specific and theoretically meaningful ways. The case for a multidimensional approach to gender identity is strengthened.

gender identitygender typinggender roles

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003