Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 147–165

Concentration and Mindfulness Meditations: Unique Forms of Consciousness?

  • Bruce R. Dunn
  • Judith A. Hartigan
  • William L. Mikulas

DOI: 10.1023/A:1023498629385

Cite this article as:
Dunn, B.R., Hartigan, J.A. & Mikulas, W.L. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (1999) 24: 147. doi:10.1023/A:1023498629385


Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1–3 Hz; theta, 4–7 Hz; alpha, 8–12 Hz; beta 1, 13–25 Hz; beta 2, 26–32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness “meditations” may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.


Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce R. Dunn
    • 1
  • Judith A. Hartigan
    • 2
  • William L. Mikulas
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, and Department of PsychologyThe University of West FloridaPensacola
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of Alabama at BirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyThe University of West FloridaUSA