Neuropsychological Functioning in Danish Gulf War Veterans
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Research has shown that Danish Gulf War (GW) veterans reported a significantly higher prevalence of neuropsychological symptoms than did military controls 6 years after GW deployment. To explore the possible central nervous system determinants of these complaints, neuropsychological tests were administered to stratified, random samples of the Danish cohort of 916 GW-deployed veterans and 236 non–GW-deployed participants. Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to analyze neuropsychological test outcomes among the 215 male participants (143 GW-deployed and 72 non–GW-deployed soldiers). No significant differences in neuropsychological test performances were found between the GW-deployed and non–GW-deployed groups. Troops deployed to the GW reported significantly more mood complaints (i.e., fatigue and confusion) than their nondeployed counterparts. Because they were assigned to the Gulf region during the postcombat phase, Danish GW soldiers differed from the majority of American GW-deployed troops in military assignments and possible toxicant exposures.
- Anger, W. K., Storzbach, D., Binder, L., Campbell, K. A., Rohlman, D. S., McCauley, L., et al. (1999). Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: Evidence from a population-based study. Neuropsychology and Society, 5, 203-212.
- Axelrod, B. N., & Milner, I. B. (1997). Neuropsychological findings in a sample of Operation Desert Storm veterans. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 9, 23-28.
- Bartone, P. T., Ursano, R. J., Wright, K. M., & Ingraham, L. H. (1989). The impact of a military air disaster on the health of assistance workers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 317-328.
- Delis, D., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (1987). California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). New York: Psychological Corporation.
- Grant, D. A., & Berg, E. A. (1948). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
- Halstead, W. C. (1947). Trail making test in the Halstead–Reitan Battery. In W. C. Halstead (Ed.), Brain and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Hom, J., Haley, R. W., & Kurt, T. L. (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of Gulf War Syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12, 531-544.
- Ishoy, T., Suadicani, P., Guldager, B., Appleyard, M., Hein, H. O., & Gyntelberg, F. (1999). State of health after deployment in the Persian Gulf: The Danish Gulf War Study. Danish Medical Bulletin, 46, 416-419.
- Letz, R. (1990). The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System: An international effort. In B. L. Johnson (Ed.), Advances in neurobehavioral toxicology: Applications in environmental and occupational health (pp. 189-201). Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.
- McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Profile of Mood States (POMS). San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
- Proctor, S. P., Heeren, T., White, R. F., Wolfe, J., Borgos, M. S., Davis, J. D., et al. (1998). Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: Self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures, and the effect of stress. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27, 1000-1010.
- Purdue Research Foundation. (1948). Examiner's manual for the Purdue Pegboard. Chicago: Science Research Associates.
- Storzbach, D., Campbell, K. A., Binder, L. M., McCauley, L., Anger, W. K., Rohlman, D. S., et al. (2000). Psychological differences between veterans with and without Gulf War unexplained symptoms. Portland Environmental Hazards Center. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 726-735.
- Storzbach, D., Rohlman, D. S., Anger, W. K., Binder, L. M., & Campbell, K. A. (2001). Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: Additional evidence from a population-based study. Environmental Research, 85, 1-13.
- Suadicani, P., Ishoy, T., Guldager, B., Appleyard, M., & Gyntelberg, F. (1999). Determinants of long-term neuropsychological symptoms: The Danish Gulf War Study. Danish Medical Bulletin, 46, 423-427.
- Sullivan, K., Krengel, M., Proctor, S. P., Devine, S., Heeren, T., & White, R. F. (2003). Cognitive functioning in treatment-seeking Gulf War veterans: Effects of acute stress reactions and pyridostigmine bromide. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25(2), 95-103.
- Tombaugh, T. (1996). Test of memory malingering. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
- Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (WAIS-R). New York: Psychological Corporation.
- Wechsler, D., & Stone, C. (1945). The Wechsler Memory Scale—A standardized memory scale for clinical use. Journal of Psychology, 19, 87-95.
- White, R. F., Proctor, S. P., Heeren, T., Wolfe, J., Krengel, M., Vasterling, J. J., et al. (2001). Neuropsychological function in Gulf War veterans: Relationships to self-reported toxicant exposures. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 40, 42-54.
- Wolfe, J., Proctor, S. P., Erickson, D. J., & Hu, H. (2002). Risk factors for multisymptom illness in U.S. Army veterans of the Gulf War. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 44, 271-281.
- World Health Organization. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
- Neuropsychological Functioning in Danish Gulf War Veterans
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Volume 25, Issue 2 , pp 85-93
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Gulf War veterans
- cognitive function
- environmental exposures
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Boston Environmental Hazards Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts
- 2. Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
- 3. VA Boston Healthcare System, National Center for PTSD, Boston, Massachusetts
- 4. Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
- 5. Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark