Baslow, M. H. 2000. Canavan's spongiform leukodystrophy: A clinical anatomy of a genetic metabolic CNS disease—An analytical review. J. Mol. Neurosci. 15:61–69.
Moreno, A., Ross, B. D., and Bluml, S. 2001. Direct determination of the N-acetyl-L-aspartate synthesis rate in the human brain by 13C MRS and [1-13C] glucose infusion. J. Neurochem. 77:347–350.
Baslow, M. H. 2002. Evidence supporting a role for N-acetyl-L-aspartate as a molecular water pump in myelinated neurons in the central nervous system: An analytical review. Neurochem. Int. 40:295–300.
Baslow, M. H. and Resnik, T. R. 1997. Canavan disease: Analysis of the nature of the metabolic lesions responsible for development of the observed clinical symptoms. J. Mol. Neurosci. 9:109–126.
Kitada, K., Akimitsu, T., Shigematsu, Y., Kondo, A., Maihara, T., Yokoi, N., Kuramoto, T., Sasa, M., and Serikawa, T. 2000. Accumulation of N-acetyl-L-aspartate in the brain of the tremor rat, a mutant exhibiting absence-like seizure and spongiform degeneration in the central nervous system. J. Neurochem. 74: 2512–2519.
Tahmaz, F. E., Sam, S., Hoganson, G. E., and Quan, F. 2001. A partial deletion of the aspartoacylase gene is the cause of Canavan disease in a family from Mexico. J. Med. Genet. 38:E9.2(online).
Matalon, R., Rady, P. L., Platt, K. A., Skinner, H. B., Quast M. J., Campbell, G. A. et al. 2000. Knock-out mouse for Canavan disease: A model for gene transfer to the central nervous system. J. Gene Med. 2:165–175.
Martin, E., Capone, A., Schneider, J., Hennig, J., and Thiel, T. 2001. Absence of N-acetylaspartate in the human brain: Impact on neurospectroscopy? Ann. Neurol. 49:518–521.
Baslow, M. H. 1997. A review of phylogenetic and metabolic relationships between the acylamino acids, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid and N-acetyl-L-histidine in the vertebrate nervous system. J. Neurochem. 68:1335–1344.
Choi, I.-Y. and Gruetter, R. 2001. In vivo 13C NMR measurement of total brain glycogen concentrations in the conscious rat. Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med. 9:210.
Tsai, G. and Coyle, J. T. 1995. N-Acetylaspartate in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prog. Neurobiol. 46:531–540.
Jung, R. E., Brooks, W. M., Yeo, R. A., Chiulli, S. J., Weers, D. C., and Sibbitt, L. 1999. Biochemical markers of intelligence: A proton MR spectroscopy study of normal human brain. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 266:1375–1379.
Jung, R. E., Yeo, R. A., Chiulli, S. J., Sibbitt, L., and Brooks, W. M. 2000. Myths of neuropsychology: Intelligence, neurometabolism and cognitive ability. Clin. Neuropsychol. 14:535–545.
Nicholson, C. and Sykova, E. 1998. Extracellular space structure revealed by diffusion analysis. Trends Neurosci. 21:207–215.
Pfeuffer, J., Tkac, I., and Gruetter, R. 2000. Extracellular-intracellular distribution of glucose and lactate in the rat brain assessed noninvasively by diffusion-weighted 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20:736–746.
Sager, T. N., Fink-Jensen, A., and Hansen, A. J. 1997. Transient elevation of interstitial N-acetylasparate in reversible global brain ischemia. J. Neurochem. 68:675–682.
Goldstein, F. B. 1976. Amidohydrolases of brain: Enzymatic hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-asparatate and other N-acyl-L-amino acids. J. Neurochem. 26:45–49.
Sager, T. N., Thomsen, C., Valsborg, J. S., Laursen, H., and Hansen, A. J. 1999. Astroglia contain a specific transport mechanism for N-acetyl-L-aspartate. J. Neurochem. 73:807–811.
Signoretti, S., Marmarou, A., Tavazzi, B., Lazzarino, G., Beaurnont, A., and Vagnozzi, R. 2001. N-Acetylaspartate reduction as a measure on injury severity and mitochondrial dysfunction following diffuse traumatic injury. J. Neurotrauma 18:977–991.
Bhakoo, K. K., Craig, T. J., and Styles, P. 2001. Developmental and regional distribution of aspartoacylase in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 79:211–220.
Huang, W., Wang, H., Kekuda, R., Fei, Y., Friedrich, A., Wang, J., et al. 2000. Transport of N-acetyasparate by Na+-dependent high-affinity dicarboxylate transporter NaDC3 and its relevance to the expression of the transporter in the brain. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therapeut. 295:392–403.
Baslow, M. H., Suckow, R., Sapirstein, V., and Hungund, B. L. 1999. Expression of aspartoacylase activity in cultured rat macroglial cells is limited to oligodendrocytes. J. Mol. Neurosci. 13:47–53.
Baslow, M. H., Suckow, R. F., Berg, M. J., Marks, N., Saito, M., and Bhakoo, K. K. 2001. Differential expression of carnosine, homocarnosine and N-acetyl-L-histidine hydrolytic activities in cultured rat macroglial cells. J. Mol. Neurosci. 17:87–95.
Chakraborty, G., Mekala, P., Yahya, D., Wu, G., and Ledeen, R. W. 2001. Intraneural N-acetylaspartate supplies acetyl groups for myelin lipid synthesis: Evidence for myelin-associated aspartoacylase. J. Neurochem. 78:736–745.
Kunnecke, B., Cerdannn, S., and Seelig, J. 1993. Cerebral metabolism of [1,2-13C2] glucose and [U-13C4] 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat brain as detected by 13C NMR spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 6:264–277.
Warringa, R. A. J., Hoeben, R. C., Koper, J. W., Sykes, J. E. C., van Golde, L. M. G., and Lopes-Cardozo, M. 1987. Hydrocortisone stimulates the development of oligodendrocytes in primary glial cultures and affects glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in these cultures. Dev. Br. Res. 34:79–86.
van der Pal, R. H. M., Koper, J. W., van Golde, L. M. G., and Lopes-Cardozo, M. 1988. Effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) on oligodendrocyte-enriched glial cultures. J. Neurosci. Res. 19:483–490.
Sonnewald, U., Akiho, H., Koshiya, K., and Iwai, A. 1998. Effect of orotic acid on the metabolism of cerebral cortical astrocytes during hypoxia and reoxygenation: An NMR spectroscopy study. J. Neurosci. Res. 51:103–108.
Lear, J. L. and Ackermann, R. F. 1990. Evaluation of radio-labeled acetate and fluoracetate as potential tracers of cerebral oxidative metabolism. Metab. Br. Dis. 5:45–56.
Birken, D. L. and Oldendorf, W. H. 1989. N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid: A literature review of a compound prominent in H-NMR spectroscopic studies of brain. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 13: 23–31.
Burlina, A. P., Ferrari, V., Facci, L., Skaper, S. D., and Burlina, A. B. 1997. Mast cells contain large quantities of the secretagogue-sensitive N-acetylasparate. J. Neurochem. 69:1314–1317.
Baslow, M. H. and Yamada, S. 1997. Identification of N-acetylaspartate in the lens of the vertebrate eye: A new model for the investigation of the function of N-acetylated amino acids in vertebrates. Exp. Eye Res. 64:283–286.
Pouwels, P. J. W., Brockkmann, K., Kruse, B., Wilken, B., Wick, M., Hanefeld, F., and Frahm, J. 1999. Regional age dependence of human brain metabolites from infancy to adulthood as detected by quantitative localized proton MRS. Pediatr. Res. 46:474–485.
Baslow, M. H. 2000. Functions of N-acetyl-L-aspartate and N-acetyl-L-aspartylglutamate in the vertebrate brain: Role in glial cell-specific signaling. J. Neurochem. 75:453–459.
Davies, S. E. C., Gotoh, M., Richards, D. A., and Obrenovitch, T. P. 1998. Hypoosmolarity induces an increase in extracellular N-acetylaspartate concentration in the rat striatum. Neurochem. Res. 23:1021–1025.
Attwell, D. and Laughlin, S. B. 2001. An energy budget for signaling in the grey matter of the brain. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21:1133–1145.
Le Bihan, D., Turner, R., and Douek, P. 1993. Is water diffusion restricted in human brain white matter? An echo-planar NMR imaging study. Neuroreport 4:887–890.
Mackert, B. M., Staub, F., Baethmann, A., and Kempski, O. 1996. Anoxia in vitro does not induce neuronal swelling or death. J. Neurol. Sci. 139:39–47.
Baslow, M. H. 1998. Function of the N-acetyl-L-histidine system in the vertebrate eye: Evidence in support of a role as a molecular water pump. J. Mol. Neurosci. 10:193–208.
Baslow, M. H. 1999. The existence of molecular water pumps in the nervous system: A review of the evidence. Neurochem. Int. 34:77–90.
Meinild, A.-K., Klaerke, D. A., Loo, D. D. F., Wright, E. M., and Zeuthen, T. 1998. The human Na+-glucose cotransporter is a molecular water pump. J. Physiol. 508: 15–21.
Ma cA ulay, N., Gether, U., Klaerke, D. A., and Zeuthen, T. 2001. Water transport by the human Na+-coupled glutamate cotransporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J. Physiol. 530:367–378.
Zeuthen, T. 2000 Molecular water pumps. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 141:97–151.
Zeuthen, T. 2002. General models for water transport across leaky epithelia. Int. Rev. Cytol. 215:285–317.
Zeuthen, T., Meinild, A.-K., Loo, D. D. F., Wright, E. M., and Klaerke, D. A. 2001. Isotonic transport by the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 from humans and rabbit. J. Physiol. 531: 631–644.
Zeuthen, T. and Ma cA ulay, N. 2002. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps. Int. Rev. Cytol. 215:259–284.
Nissenson, A. R., Levin, M. L., Klawans, H. L., and Nausieda, P. L. 1977. Neurological sequelae of end stage renal disease (ESRD). J. Chron. Dis. 30: 705–733.
Wells, T. 1998. Vesicular osmometers, vasopressin secretion and aquaporin-4: A new mechanism for osmoreception? Mol. and Cell. Endocrinol. 136:103–107.
Neely, J. D., Christensen, B. M., Nielsen, S., and Agre, P. 1999. Heterotetrameric composition of aquaporin-4 water channels. Biochemistry 38:11156–11163.
Nicchia, G. P., Frigerl, A., Liuzzi, G. M., Santacroce, M. P., Nico, B., Procino, G., Quondamatteo, F., Herken, R., Roncali, L., and Svelto, M. 2000. Aquaporin-4-containing astrocytes sustain a temperature-and mercury-insensitive swelling in vitro. Glia 31:29–38.
Niermann, H., Amiry-Moghaddam, M., Holthoff, K., Witte, O. W., and Ottersen, O. P. 2001. A novel role of vasopressin in the brain: Modulation of activity-dependent water flux in the neocortex. J. Neurosci. 21:3045–3051.
Zhu, X.-H. and Chen, W. 2001. Observed BOLD effects on cerebral metabolite resonances in human visual cortex during visual stimulation: A functional 1H MRS study at 4 T. Magn. Reson. Med. 46:841–847.
Mayeux, V., Pons, F., Baldy-Moulinier, M., and Valmier, J. 1996. Early postnatal muscle contractile activity regulates the carbonic anhydrase phenotype of proprioceptive neurons in young and mature mice: Evidence for a critical period in development. Neuroscience 71:787–795.
Cammer, W., Zhang, H., and Cammer, M. 1993. Glial cell abnormalities in the CNS of the carbonic anhydrase II deficient mutant mouse. J. Neurolog. Sci. 118:1–9.
Sapirstein, V. S., Durrie, R., Nolan, C. E., and Marks, N. 1993. Identification of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase in white matter coated vesicles: The fate of carbonic anhydrase and other white matter coated vesicle proteins in triethyl tin-induced leukoencephalopathy. J. Neurosci. Res. 35:83–91.
Fischer, I., Durrie, R., and Sapirstein, V. S. 1994. Plasmolipin: The other myelin proteolipid—A review of studies of its structure, expression, and function. Neurochem. Res. 19:959–966.
Thiel, T., Ensenauer, R., Lehnert, W., Hennig, J., and Martin, E. 2001. Detection and monitoring of neurometabolic diseases using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neurochem. News Newslett. 1:125–128.