Adaptive and wood quality trait data were collected and analyzed on commercially available Juglans regia and J. regia×J. nigra provenances and progenies planted across Europe in a multi-site network. A total of 19 seed sources, replicated 35 times per site, were planted at 13 sites from 5 European countries, encompassing the potential distribution area of timber production plantation sites. The following traits were evaluated: survival, height, diameter at breast height, stem form, apical dominance, vegetative budbreak, along with biotic and abiotic damage. Mean values were significantly different both among provenances/progenies and sites. Most common damage was late spring and early autumn frost. Bud break ranking was significantly correlated with provenance and progeny origin. Although J. regia is fast growing, southern European early budbreak plant material should not be planted under most middle European conditions where late spring frost can be expected, as it has a significant negative impact on architectural (and thus wood quality) traits. Hybrid J. regia×J. nigra progeny performed better than J. regia provenances/progenies for most traits measured. Differences were significantly in favor of hybrids at sites with medium to low fertility, although some locally selected seed sources tended to perform as well as hybrids on high fertility sites.