Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 447-455

First online:

An Evaluation of the Job Stress Questionnaire with a Sample of Entrepreneurs

  • Julie Aitken HarrisAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, The University of Western Ontario
  • , Robert SaltstoneAffiliated withNipissing University
  • , Maryann FraboniAffiliated withThe University of Western Ontario

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A modified version of Caplan's Job Stress Questionnaire (JSQ) was administered to 169 male and 56 female entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs were found to have higher levels of stress associated with workload than with role ambiguity and underutilization of skills. Compared to scores reported previously for various occupational categories, the entrepreneurs scored significantly higher than did white collar, blue collar, and professional groups on the workload scale and significantly lower on scales measuring role ambiguity and under-utilization of skills. These results may be due to the nature of entrepreneurial activity, which is often characterized by heavy workloads, long hours, and a self-established role in the organization. Additionally, the factorial composition of the JSQ and its internal consistency were examined. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity at the item and subscale level confirmed the a priori dimensions of the JSQ, although the internal consistency of the scales were low to moderate. The need for various improvements in the measurement of occupational stress is briefly discussed.