Synchrony in the Eye of the Beholder: An Analysis of the Role of Neural Synchronization in Cognitive Processes
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
We discuss the role of synchrony of activationin higher-level cognitive processes. Inparticular, we analyze the question of whethersynchrony of activation provides a mechanismfor compositional representation in neuralsystems. We will argue that synchrony ofactivation does not provide a mechanism forcompositional representation in neural systems.At face value, one can identify a level ofcompositional representation in the models thatintroduce synchrony of activation for thispurpose. But behavior in these models isalways produced by means conjunctiverepresentations in the form of coincidencedetectors. Therefore, models that rely onsynchrony of activation lack the systematicityand productivity of true compositional systems.As a result, they cannot distinguish betweentype and token representations, which resultsin misrepresentations of spatial relations andpropositions. Furthermore, higher-levelcognitive processes will likely integrateinformation from widely distributed areas inthe brain, which puts severe restrictions onthe underlying neural dynamics if synchrony ofactivation is to play a role in theseprocesses. We will briefly discuss theserestrictions in the case of feature binding invisual cognition.
- Barlow, H.B., 1972: Single units and sensation: A neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology? Perceptron 1, 371–394.
- Biederman, I., 1987: Recognition by components: A theory of human image understanding, Psychological Review 94, 115–147.
- Bienenstock, E. and Geman, S., 1995: Compositionality in neural systems. In M.A. Arbib, G. Adelman and P. H. Arbib (eds), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 223–226.
- Cambell, S.R., Wang, D.L. and Jayaprakash, C., 1999: Synchrony and desynchrony in integrate–and–fire oscillators, Neural Computation 11, 1595–1619.
- Dennett, D.C., 1991: Consciousness Explained. London: Allen Lane.
- Ernst, U., Pawelzik, K. and Geisel, T., 1995: Synchronization induced by temporal delays in pulsecoupled oscillators, Physical Review Letters 74, 1570–1573.
- Farah, M., Humphreys, G.W. and Rodman, H.R., 1999: Object and face recognition. In M.J. Zigmond, F.E. Bloom, S.C. Landis, J.L. Roberts and L.R. Squire (eds), Fundamental Neuroscience, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 1339–1361.
- Friedman–Hill, S., Maldonado, P.E. and Gray, C.M., 2000: Dynamics of striate cortical activity in the alert Macaque: I. Incidence and stimulus–dependence of gamma–band neuronal oscillations, Cerebral Cortex 10, 1105–1116.
- Fodor, J.A. and Pylyshyn, Z.W., 1988: Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis, Cognition 28, 3–71.
- Ghose, G.M. and Maunsell, J., 1999: Specialized representations in the visual cortex: A role for binding? Neuron 24, 79–85.
- Gray, C.M., 1999: The temporal correlation hypothesis of visual feature integration: Still alive and well, Neuron 24, 31–47.
- Hummel, J.E. and Biederman, I., 1992: Dynamic binding in a neural network for shape recognition, Psychological Review 99, 480–517.
- Hummel, J.E. and Holyoak, K.J., 1997: Distributed representations of structure: A theory of analogical access and mapping, Psychological Review 104, 427–466.
- Lumer, D.E., Edelman, G.M. and Tononi, G., 1997: Neural dynamics in a model of the thalamocortical system. I. Layers, loops and the emergence of fast synchronous rhythms, Cerebral Cortex 7, 207–222.
- Mehta, S.D., Ulbert, I. and Schroeder, C.E., 2000: Intermodal selective attention in monkeys. I: Distribution and timing of effects across visual areas, Cerebral Cortex 10, 343–358.
- Mountcastle, V.B., 1998: The Cerebral Cortex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Schroeder, C.E., Mehta, S.D. and Givre, S.J., 1998: A spatiotemporal profile of visual system activation revealed by current source density analysis in the awake macaque, Cerebral Cortex 8, 575–592.
- Schmolesky, M.T., Wang, Y., Hanes, D.P., Thompson, K.G., Leutgeb, S. Schall, J.D. and Leventhal, A.D., 1998: Signal timing across the macaque visual system, Journal of Neurophysiology 79, 3272–3278.
- Shadlen, M.N. and Movshon, J.A., 1999: Synchrony unbound: A critical evaluation of the temporal binding hypothesis, Neuron 24, 67–77.
- Singer, W., 1999: Neuronal synchrony: A versatile code for the definition of relations? Neuron 24, 49–65.
- Singer, W. and Gray, C.M., 1995: aVisual feature integration and the temporal correlation hypothesis, Annual Reviews Neuroscience 18, 555–586.
- Singer, W., Engel, A.K., Kreiter, A.K., Munk, M.H.J., Neuenschwander, S. and Roelfsema, P.R., 1997: Neuronal assemblies: Necessity, signature and detectability, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1, 252–261.
- Shastri L. and Ajjanagadde, V., 1993: From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16, 417–494.
- Tononi, G., Sporns, O. and Edelman, G.M., 1992: Reentry and the problem of integrating multiple cortical areas: Simulation of dynamic integration in the visual system, Cerebral Cortex 2, 310–335.
- Van der Velde, F., 1997: On the use of computation in modelling behaviour, Network: Computation in Neural Systems 8, 1–32.
- Von der Malsburg, C., 1987: Synaptic plasticity as basis of brain organization. In J.P. Changeux and M. Konishi (eds), The Neural and Molecular Bases of Learning, Chichester: John Wiley, pp. 411–431.
- Von der Malsburg, C., 1999: The what and why of binding: The modeler's perspective, Neuron 24, 95–104.
- Synchrony in the Eye of the Beholder: An Analysis of the Role of Neural Synchronization in Cognitive Processes
Brain and Mind
Volume 3, Issue 3 , pp 291-312
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- cognitive processes
- compositional representations
- conjunctive representations