Mesenchymal stem cells combined with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote bone regeneration

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The reconstruction and repair of large bone defects, resulting from trauma, cancer or metabolic disorders, is a major clinical challenge in orthopaedics. Clinically available biological and synthetic grafts have clear limitations that necessitate the development of new graft materials and/or strategies. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), obtained from the adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into various mesenchymal tissues. Of particular interest is the ability of these cells to differentiate into osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells. At Osiris, we have extensively characterized MSCs and have demonstrated MSCs can induce bone repair when implanted in vivo in combination with a biphasic calcium phosphate, specifically hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate. This article reviews previous and current studies utilizing mesenchymal stem cells and biphasic calcium phosphates in bone repair.