Identification of Host Fruit Volatiles from Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Attractive to Hawthorn-Origin Rhagoletis pomonella Flies
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Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) acting as behavioral attractants for hawthorn-infesting Rhagoletis pomonella flies. Consistent EAD activity was obtained for six chemicals: ethyl acetate (94.3%), 3-methylbutan- 1-ol (4.0%), isoamyl acetate (1.5%), 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene (0.07%), butyl hexanoate (0.01%), and dihydro-β-ionone (0.10%). In a flight-tunnel bioassay, there was a dose-related increase in the percentage of flies flying upwind to the six-component mixture. Hawthorn-origin flies also made equivalent levels of upwind flight with the synthetic blend and an adsorbent extract of volatiles collected from whole fruit, each containing the same amount of the 3-methylbutan-1-ol compound. Significantly lower levels of upwind flight occurred to a previously identified volatile blend of ester compounds that attracts R. pomonella flies infesting domestic apples, compared with the hawthorn volatile mix. Selected subtraction assays showed further that the four-component mixture of 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, and dihydro-β-ionone also elicited levels of upwind flight equivalent to the six-component mix. Removal of 3-methylbutan-1-ol from the four-component blend resulted in complete loss of upwind flight behavior. Removal of dihydro- β-ionone, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, or butyl hexanoate from the four-component mixture resulted in significant decreases in the mean number of upwind flights compared to the four- or six-component mixtures.
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- Identification of Host Fruit Volatiles from Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Attractive to Hawthorn-Origin Rhagoletis pomonella Flies
Journal of Chemical Ecology
Volume 29, Issue 2 , pp 321-336
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Solid-phase microextraction
- gas chromatographic electroantennographic detection
- flight tunnel
- Crataegus spp.
- fruit volatiles
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Entomology, NYS Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York, 14456
- 2. Department of Entomology, NYS Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York, 14456
- 3. Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, PO Box 5346, Fargo, North Dakota, 58105
- 4. USDA-ARS-PSI, Insect Chemical Ecology Lab., Beltsville, Maryland, 20705