Baron JA,Beach M,Mandel JS, et al. (1999) Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med
Bonithon-Kopp C,Kronborg O,Giocosa A,Rath U,Faivre J (2000) Calcium and fibre supplementation in the prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. Lancet
Platz EA,Giovannucci E (1999) Vitamin D and calcium in colorectal and prostate cancers. In: Heber D,Blackburn GL,Go VLW, eds. Nutritional Oncology. San Diego: Academic Press. 223-252.
Wu K,Willett WC,Fuchs CS,Colditz GA,Giovannucci EL (2002) Calcium intake and risk of colon cancer in women and men. J Natl Cancer Inst
Bergsma-Kadijk JA,van't Veer P,Kampman E,Burema J (1996) Calcium does not protect against colorectal neoplasia. Epidemiology
Martinez ME,Willett WC (1998) Calcium, vitamin D and colorectal cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Newmark HL,Wargovich MJ,Bruce WR (1984) Colon cancer and dietary fat, phosphate, and calcium: a hypothesis. J Natl Cancer Inst
McMichael AJ,Potter JD (1985) Host factors in carcinogenesis: certain bile-acid metabolic profiles that selectively increase the risk of proximal colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst
Holt PR (1999) Dairy foods and prevention of colon cancer: human studies. J Am Coll Nutr
Holt PR,Arber N,Halmos B, et al. (2002) Colonic epithelial cell proliferation decreases wtih increasing levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Peters U,McGlynn KA,Chatterjee N, et al. (2001) Vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Platz EA,Hankinson SE,Hollis BW, et al. (2000) Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy-and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Tangrea J, Helzlsouer K, Pietinen P, et al. (1997) Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and the subsequent risk of colon and rectal cancer in Finnish men. Cancer Causes Control
Cross HS,Peterlik M,Reddy S,Schuster I (1997) Vitamin D metabolism in human colon adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells: expression of 24-hydroxyvitamin D3-1a-hydroxylase activity and regulation of side-chain metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
US Department of Agriculture(1993) USDA's Food Guide, Background and Development, 1514: USDA, Human Information Service.
Jacques PF,Felson DT,Tucker KL, et al. (1997) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its determinants in an elderly population sample. Am J Clin Nutr
Parodi PW (1997) Cows' milk fat components as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nutr
Outwater JL,Nicholson A,Barnard N (1997) Dairy products and breast cancer: the IGF-I, estrogen, and bGH hypothesis. Med Hypoth
Schams D,Karg H (1986) Hormones in milk. Ann NY Acad Sci
Chan JM,Stampfer MJ,Ma J,Gann PH,Gaziano J,Giovannucci EL (2001) Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr
Cramer DW,Greenberg ER,Titus-Ernstoff L, et al. (2000) A case-control study of galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Boutron MC,Faivre J,Marteau P,Couillault C,Senesse P,Quipourt V (1996) Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, dairy products and colorectal carcinogenesis: a French case-control study. Br J Cancer
Marcus PM,Newcomb PA (1998) The association of calcium and vitamin D, and colon and rectal cancer in Wisconsin women. Int J Epidemiol
Sellers TA,Bazyk AE,Bostick RM, et al. (1998) Diet and risk of colon cancer in a large prospective study of older women: an analysis stratified on family history. Cancer Causes Control
Kampman E,Slattery ML,Caan B,Potter JD (2000) Calcium, vitamin D, sunshine exposure, dairy products and colon cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control
Jarvinen R,Knekt P,Hakulinen T,Aromaa A (2001) Prospective study on milk products, calcium and cancers of the colon and rectum. Eur J Clin Nutr
White E,Shannon J,Patterson R (1997) Relationship between vitamin and calcium supplement use and colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Garland C,Barrett-Connor E,Rossof AH,Shekelle RB,Criqui MH,Oglesby P (1985) Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet
Heilbrun LK,Nomura A,Hankin JH,Stemmerman GN (1985) Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer. Lancet
Phillips RL,Snowdon DA (1985) Dietary relationships with fatal colorectal cancer among Seventh-Day Adventists. J Natl Cancer Inst
Wu AH,Paganini-Hill A,Ross RK,Henderson BE (1987) Alcohol, physical activity and other risk factors for colorectal cancer: a prospective study. Br J Cancer
Stemmerman GN,Nomura A,Chyou P-H (1990) The influence of dairy and nondairy calcium on subsite large-bowel cancer risk. Dis Colon Rectum
Ursin G,Bjelke E,Heuch I,Vollset SE (1990) Milk consumption and cancer incidence: a Norwegian prospective study. Br J Cancer
Kato I,Akhmedkhanov A,Koenig K,Toniolo PG,Shore RE,Riboli E (1997) Prospective study of diet and female colorectal cancer: the New York University Women's Health Study. Nutr Cancer
Bostick RM,Potter JD,Sellers TA, et al. (1993) Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to incidence of colon cancer among older women. Am J Epidemiol
Kearney J,Giovannucci E,Rimm EB, et al. (1996) Calcium, vitamin D and dairy foods and the occurrence of colon cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol
Calle EE,Rodriguez C,Jacobs EJ, et al. (2002) The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort-rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics. Cancer
Bergmann M,Calle E,Mervis C,Miracle-McMahill H,Thun M,Heath C (1998) Validity of self-reported cancers in a prospective cohort study in comparison to data from state cancer registries. Am J Epidemiol
Calle EE,Terrell DD (1993) Utility of the National Death Index for ascertainment of mortality among Cancer Prevention Study II participants. Am J Epidemiol
Block G,Hartman AM,Naughton D (1990) A reduced dietary questionnaire: development and validation. Epidemiology
Kaufman DW,Kelly JP,Rosenberg L,Anderson TE,Mitchell AA (2002) Recent patterns of medication use in the ambulatory adult population of the United States. The Slone Survey. JAMA
Block G,Coyl L,Smucker R,Harlan LC (1989) Health Habits and History Questionnaire: diet history and other risk factors. Personal computer system documentation. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Institutes of Health.
Agricultural Research Service(1991) Provisional Table on Vitamin D Content of Foods. Beltsville, MD: USDA.
Willett W,Stampfer MJ (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol
US Department of Agriculture(1998) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Agricultural Research Service.
Flagg EW,Coates RJ,Calle EE,Potischman N,Thun MJ (2000) Validation of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Survey Cohort Food Frequency Questionnaire. Epidemiology
Cox DR (1972) Regression models and life-tables. J R Stat Soc [B], 34: 187-220.
Hosmer D,Lemeshow S (1989) Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley.
Institute of Medicine(1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Speer G,Cseh K,Winkler G,Takacs I,Nagy Z,Lakatos P (2001) Oestrogen and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes and the expression of ErbB-2 and EGF receptor in human rectal cancers. Eur J Cancer
Makishima M,Lu TT,Xie W, et al. (2002) Vitamin D receptor as an intestinal bile acid sensor. Science
Martinez ME,Giovannucci EL,Colditz GA, et al. (1996) Calcium, vitamin D and the occurrence of colorectal cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst
Bostick RM,Potter JD,Fosdick L, et al. (1993) Calcium and colorectal epithelial cell proliferation: a preliminary randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst
Bostick RM (1997) Human studies of calcium supplementation and colorectal epithelial cell proliferation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
Alder RJ,McKeown-Eyssen G,Bright-See E (1993) Randomized trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on fecal risk factors for colorectal cancer. Am J Epidemiol
Alberts DS,Ritenbaugh C,Story JA, et al. (1996) Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of effect of wheat bran fiber and calcium on fecal bile acids in patients with resected adenomatous colon polyps. J Natl Cancer Inst
Holt PR,Atillasoy EO,Gilman J, et al. (1998) Modulation of abnormal colonic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation by low-fat dairy foods. JAMA
Food Surveys Research Group, and Service AR(1999) Pyramid Servings Data: results from USDA's 1994-96 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals. Beltsville,MD: US Department of Agriculture.