, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 119-131

IL-4 Expression Delays Eosinophil-Independent Vasculopathy and Fibrosis During Allograft Rejection in the Mouse

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Transplant vasculopathy in the mouse is thought to be dependent on IL-4 and mediated by IL-5 and eosinophils, whereas in the rat and human systems, IL-4 is associated with the absence of transplant vasculopathy and down-regulation of a Th1-type response. In this study we tested the possibility that the apparent difference in the role of IL-4 in transplant vasculopathy is related to protocol differences rather than to the species being studied. Using a protocol that closely resembles that used in rat and human studies, we developed a model of transplant vasculopathy in the mouse that is associated with Th1-type cytokines and independent of IL-5 and eosinophil infiltration. In this model IL-4 promotes a significant delay in vasculopathy in the graft (P = 0.04) and a decrease in the incidence of allograft rejection (P = 0.02). The data suggest that the role of IL-4 in transplant vasculopathy can be controlled by the protocol used to treat the transplant recipient.