Fidler IJ. Molecular Biology of Cancer: Invasion and Metastasis. In Devita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds): Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven 1997; 135–52.
Lawrence JA, Steeg PS. Mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastasis. World J Urol 1996; 14: 124–30.
Price JE. Host-tumor interactions in the progression of breast cancer metastasis. In Vivo 1994; 8: 145–54.
Welch DR, Steeg PS, Rinker-Schaeffer CW. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis. Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis. Breast Cancer Res 2000; 2: 408–16.
Folkman J. Angiogenesis and angiogenesis inhibition: An overview. EXS 1997; 79: 1–8.
Ruoslahti E. How cancer spreads. Sci Am 1996; 275: 72–7.
Ruoslahti E. Fibronectin and its integrin receptors in cancer. Adv Cancer Res 1999; 76: 1–20.
Zetter BR. Adhesion molecules in tumor metastasis. Semin Cancer Biol 1993; 4: 219–29.
Parise LV, Lee J, Juliano RL. New aspects of integrin signaling in cancer. Semin Cancer Biol 2000; 10: 407–14.
Yamada KM, Geiger B. Molecular interactions in cell adhesion complexes. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997; 9: 76–85.
Schoenwaelder SM, Burridge K. Bidirectional signaling between the cytoskeleton and integrins. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999; 11: 274–86.
Geiger B, Ayalon O. Cadherins. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1992; 8: 307–32.
Birchmeier C, Birchmeier W, Brand S. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in cancer progression. Acta Anatomica 1996; 156: 217–26.
Volberg T, Zick Y, Dror R et al. The effect of tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation on the assembly of adherens-type junctions. EMBO J 1992; 11: 1733–42.
Kinch MS, Clark GJ, Der CJ et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the adhesions of ras-transformed breast epithelia. J Cell Biol 1995; 130: 461–71.
Parsons JT, Martin KH, Slack JK et al. Focal adhesion kinase: A regulator of focal adhesion dynamics and cell movement. Oncogene 2000; 19: 5606–13.
Clark EA, King WG, Brugge JS et al. Integrin-mediated signals regulated by members of the rho family of GTPases. J Cell Biol 1998; 142: 573–86.
Patstone G, Maher PA. Phosphotyrosine-containing proteins are concentrated in differentiating cells during chicken embryonic development. Growth Factors 1993; 9: 243–52.
Kinch MS, Kilpatrick K, Zhong C. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylated adhesion proteins in human cancer cells. Hybridoma 1998; 17: 227–35.
Blume-Jensen P, Hunter T. Oncogenic kinase signaling. Nature 2001; 411: 355–65.
Pawson T., Scott JD. Signaling through scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteins. Science 1997; 278: 2075–80.
Jove JA, Hanafusa H. Cell transformation by the viral src gene. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1987; 3: 31–65.
Kinch MS, Burridge K. Altered adhesions in ras-transformed breast epithelial cells. Biochem Soc Trans 1995; 23: 446–50.
Zelinski DP, Zantek ND, Stewart JC et al. EphA2 overexpression causes tumorigenesis of mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 2301–6.
Zantek ND, Walker-Daniels J, Stewart JC et al. MCF-10A-NeoST: A new cell system for studying cell-ECM and cell-cell interactions in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 3640–8.
Walker-Daniels J, Coffman K, Azimi M et al. Overexpression of the EphA2 tyrosine kinase in prostate cancer. Prostate 1999; 41: 275–80.
Zantek ND, Azimi M, Fedor-Chaiken M et al. E-cadherin regulates the function of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Cell Growth Differentiation 1999; 10: 629–38.
Carles-Kinch K, Kilpatrick KE, Stewart JC et al. Antibody targeting of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase on malignant carcinomas. Cancer Res 2001; 62: 2840–7.
Lindberg RA, Hunter T. cDNA cloning and characterization of eck, an epithelial cell receptor protein-tyrosine kinase in the eph/elk family of protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10: 6316–24.
Gale NW, Yancopoulos GD. Ephrins and their receptors: A repulsive topic? Cell Tissue Res 1997; 290: 227–41.
Pasquale EB. The Eph family of receptors. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997; 9: 608–15.
Shao H, Pandey A, O’Shea KS et al. Characterization of B61, the ligand for the Eck receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 5636–41.
Bartley TD, Hunt RW, Welcher AA et al. B61 is a ligand for the ECK receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. Nature 1994; 368: 558–60.
Hunter T, Lindberg RA, Middlemas DS et al. Receptor protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 1992; 57: 25–41.
Gale NW, Holland SJ, Valenzuela DM et al. Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during embryogenesis. Neuron 1996; 17: 9–19.
Davis S, Gale NW, Aldrich TH et al. Ligands for EPH-related receptor tyrosine kinases that require membrane attachment or clustering for activity. Science 1994; 266: 816–9.
Eph Nomenclature Committee (Flanagan JG, Gale NW, Hunter T et al.) Unified nomenclature for Eph family receptors and their ligands, the ephrins. Eph Nomenclature Committee. Cell 1997; 90: 403–4.
Lemke G. A coherent nomenclature for Eph receptors and their ligands. Mol Cell Neurosci 1997;9: 331–2.
Hunter T. The Croonian Lecture 1997. The phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine: its role in cell growth and disease. Phil Trans R Soc London Ser B Biol Sci 1998; 353: 583–605.
Holland SJ, Peles E, Pawson T et al. Cell-contact-dependent signalling in axon growth and guidance: Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1998; 8: 117–27.
Orioli D., Klein R. The Eph receptor family: Axonal guidance by contact repulsion. Trends Genet 1997; 13: 354–9.
Wang HU, Anderson DJ. Eph family transmembrane ligands can mediate repulsive guidance of trunk neural crest migration and motor axon outgrowth. Neuron 1997; 18: 383–96.
Tessier-Lavigne M. Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, axon repulsion, and the development of topographic maps. Cell 1995; 82: 345–8.
Weinstein DC, Rahman SM, Ruiz JC et al. Embryonic expression of eph signalling factors in Xenopus. Mech Dev 1996; 57: 133–44.
Bovenkamp DE, Greer P. Novel Eph-family receptor tyrosine kinase is widely expressed in the developing zebrafish nervous system. Dev Dynam 1997; 209: 166–81.
Helbling PM, Tran CT, Brandli AW. Requirement for EphA receptor signaling in the segregation of Xenopus third and fourth arch neural crest cells. Mech Dev 1998; 78: 63–79.
Chen J, Ruley HE. An enhancer element in the EphA2 (Eck) gene sufficient for rhombomere-specific expression is activated by HOXA1 and HOXB1 homeobox proteins. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 24670–5.
Mori T, Wanaka A, Taguchi A et al. Differential expressions of the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinase genes (sek, elk, eck) in the developing nervous system of the mouse. Brain Res 1995; 29: 325–35.
Naruse-Nakajima C, Asano M, Iwakura Y. Involvement of EphA2 in the formation of the tail notochord via interaction with ephrinA1. Mech Dev 2001; 102: 95–105.
Connor RJ, Menzel P, Pasquale EB. Expression and tyrosine phosphorylation of Eph receptors suggest multiple mechanisms in patterning of the visual system. Dev Biol 1998; 193: 21–35.
Sefton M, Araujo M, Nieto MA. Novel expression gradients of Ephlike receptor tyrosine kinases in the developing chick retina. Dev Biol 1997; 188: 363–8.
Marcus RC, Gale NW, Morrison ME et al. Eph family receptors and their ligands distribute in opposing gradients in the developing mouse retina. Dev Biol 1996; 180: 786–9.
Magal E, Holash JA, Toso RJ et al. B61, a ligand for the Eck receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, exhibits neurotrophic activity in cultures of rat spinal cord neurons. J Neurosci Res 1996; 43: 735–44.
Chen J, Nachabah A, Scherer C et al. Germ-line inactivation of the murine Eck receptor tyrosine kinase by gene trap retroviral insertion. Oncogene 1996; 12: 979–88.
Ganju P, Shigemoto K, Brennan J et al. The Eck receptor tyrosine kinase is implicated in pattern formation during gastrulation, hindbrain segmentation and limb development. Oncogene 1994; 9: 1613–24.
Lickliter JD, Smith FM, Olsson JE et al. Embryonic stem cells express multiple Eph-subfamily receptor tyrosine kinases. PNAS 1996; 93: 145–50.
Andres AC, Reid HH, Zurcher G et al. Expression of two novel eph-related receptor protein tyrosine kinases in mammary gland development and carcinogenesis. Oncogene 1994; 9: 1461–7.
Andres AC, Zuercher G, Djonov V et al. Protein tyrosine kinase expression during the estrous cycle and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland. Int J Cancer 1995; 63: 288–96.
Berclaz G, Andres AC, Albrecht D et al. Expression of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase myk-1/htk in normal and malignant mammary epithelium. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 226: 869–75.
Easty DJ, Bennett DC. Protein tyrosine kinases in malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res 2000; 10: 401–11.
Easty DJ, Guthrie BA, Maung K et, 2000al. Protein B61 as a new growth factor: expression of B61 and up-regulation of its receptor epithelial cell kinase during melanoma progression. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 2528–32.
Easty DJ, Herlyn M, Bennett DC. Abnormal protein tyrosine kinase gene expression during melanoma progression and metastasis. Int J Cancer 1995; 60: 129–36.
Ogawa K, Pasqualini R, Lindberg RA et, 2000al. The ephrin-A1 ligand and its receptor, EphA2, are expressed during tumor neovascularization. Oncogene 2000; 19: 6043–52.
Rosenberg IM, Goke M, Kanai M et al. Epithelial cell kinase-B61: An autocrine loop modulating intestinal epithelial migration and barrier function. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: G824–32.
Hess AR, Seftor EA, Gardner LM et al. Molecular regulation of tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry by tyrosine phosphorylation: Role of epithelial cell kinase (Ech/EphA2). Cancer Res 2001; 61: 3250–5.
Zantek ND, Zelinski DP, Peters MA et al. Estrogen and Myc Negatively Regulate Expression of the EphA2 Tyrosine Kinase. J Cell Physiol 2001.
Orsulic S, Kemler R. Expression of Eph receptors and ephrins is differentially regulated by E-cadherin. J Cell Sci 2000; 113: 1793–802.
Dohn M, Jiang J, Chen X. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is regulated by p53-family proteins and induces apoptosis. Oncogene 2001; 20: 6503–15.
Pandey A, Shao H, Marks RM et al. Role of B61, the ligand for the Eck receptor tyrosine kinase, in TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis. Science 1995; 268: 567–9.
Pandey A, Duan H, Dixit VM. Characterization of a novel src-like adapter protein that associates with the Eck receptor tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 19201–4.
Pandey A, Lazar DF, Saltiel AR et al. Activation of the Eck receptor protein tyrosine kinase stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 30154–7.
Miao H, Wei B, Li Q et al. Activation of EphA receptor tyrosine kinase inhibits the Ras/MAPK pathway. Nat Cell Biol 2001; 3: 527–30.
Miao H, Burnett E, Kinch M et al. Activation of EphA2 kinase suppresses integrin function and causes focal-adhesion-kinase dephosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol 2000; 2: 62–9.
Fagotto F, Gumbiner BM. Cell contact-dependent signaling. Dev Biol 1996; 180: 445–54.
Wieser RJ, Renauer D, Schafer A et al. Growth control in mammalian cells by cell-cell contacts. Environ Health Perspect 1990; 88: 251–3.
Miao H, Burnett E, Kinch MS et al. Activation of EphA2 kinase suppresses integrin function and causes focal-adhesion-kinase dephosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol 2000; 2: 62–9.
Giancotti FG, Ruoslahti E. Integrin signaling. Science 1999; 285: 1028–32.
Frisch SM, Ruoslahti E. Integrins and anoikis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997; 9: 701–6.
van der Geer P, Pawson T. The PTB domain: A new protein module implicated in signal transduction. Trends Biochem Sci 1995; 20: 277–80.
Pawson T. Protein modules and signalling networks. Nature 1995; 373: 573–80.
Pratt RL, Kinch MS. Activation of the EphA2 tyrosine kinase stimulates the MAP/ERK kinase signaling cascade. Oncogene 2002; In Press.
Dodelet VC, Pasquale EB. Eph receptors and ephrin ligands: Embryogenesis to tumorigenesis. Oncogene 2000; 19: 5614–9. (Review).
Potla L, Boghaert ER, Armellino D et al. Reduced expression of EphrinA1 (EFNA1) inhibits three-dimensional growth of HT29 colon carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett 2002; 175: 187–95.
Vleminckx K, Kemler R. Cadherins and tissue formation: Integrating adhesion and signaling. Bioessays 1999; 21: 211–20.
Yap AS, Brieher WM, Gumbiner BM. Molecular and functional analysis of cadherin-based adherens junctions. Ann Rev Cell Dev Biol 1997; 13: 119–46.
Birchmeier W, Behrens J, Weidner KM et al. Epithelial differentiation and the control of metastasis in carcinomas. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1996; 213: 117–35.
Cates CA, Michael RL, Stayrook KR et al. Prenylation of oncogenic human PTP(CAAX) protein tyrosine phosphatases. Cancer Lett 1996; 110: 49–55.
Carter P. Improving the efficacy of antibody-based cancer therapies. Nat Rev Cancer 2001; 1: 118–29.
Maniotis AJ, Folberg R, Hess A et al. Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry. Am J Pathol 1999; 155: 739–52.
Bissell MJ. Tumor plasticity allows vasculogenic mimicry, a novel form of angiogenic switch. A rose by any other name? Am J Pathol 1999; 155: 675–9.
McCawley LJ, Matrisian LM. Matrix metalloproteinases: Multifunctional contributors to tumor progression. Mol Med Today 2000; 6: 149–56.
Sternlicht MD, Werb Z. How matrix metalloproteinases regulate cell behavior. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2001; 17: 463–16.