, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 191-244

A Remarkable q, t-Catalan Sequence and q-Lagrange Inversion

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Abstract

We introduce a rational function C n(q, t) and conjecture that it always evaluates to a polynomial in q, t with non-negative integer coefficients summing to the familiar Catalan number \(\frac{1}{{n + 1}}\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}c} {2n} \\ n \\ \end{array} } \right)\) . We give supporting evidence by computing the specializations \(D_n \left( q \right) = C_n \left( {q{1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 q}} \right. \kern-0em} q}} \right)q^{\left( {\begin{array}{*{20}c} n \\ 2 \\ \end{array} } \right)} \) and C n(q) = C n(q, 1) = C n(1,q). We show that, in fact, D n(q)q -counts Dyck words by the major index and C n(q) q -counts Dyck paths by area. We also show that C n(q, t) is the coefficient of the elementary symmetric function e n in a symmetric polynomial DHn(x; q, t) which is the conjectured Frobenius characteristic of the module of diagonal harmonic polynomials. On the validity of certain conjectures this yields that C n(q, t) is the Hilbert series of the diagonal harmonic alternants. It develops that the specialization DHn(x; q, 1) yields a novel and combinatorial way of expressing the solution of the q-Lagrange inversion problem studied by Andrews [2], Garsia [5] and Gessel [11]. Our proofs involve manipulations with the Macdonald basis {P μ(x; q, t)}μ which are best dealt with in λ-ring notation. In particular we derive here the λ-ring version of several symmetric function identities.