Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 599–607

Ozone-induced gene expression occurs via ethylene-dependent and -independent signalling

  • Bernhard Grimmig
  • Maria N. Gonzalez-Perez
  • Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
  • Regina Vögeli-Lange
  • Fred MeinsJr.
  • Rüdiger Hain
  • Josep Penuelas
  • Bernd Heidenreich
  • Christian Langebartels
  • Dieter Ernst
  • Heinrich SandermannJr.
Article

DOI: 10.1023/A:1022385104386

Cite this article as:
Grimmig, B., Gonzalez-Perez, M.N., Leubner-Metzger, G. et al. Plant Mol Biol (2003) 51: 599. doi:10.1023/A:1022385104386

Abstract

Recent studies suggest that ethylene is involved in signalling ozone-induced gene expression. We show here that application of ozone increased glucuronidase (GUS) expression of chimeric reporter genes regulated by the promoters of the tobacco class I β-1,3-glucanases (GLB and Gln2) and the grapevine resveratrol synthase (Vst1) genes in transgenic tobacco leaves. 5′-deletion analysis of the class I β-1,3-glucanase promoter revealed that ozone-induced gene regulation is mainly mediated by the distal enhancer region containing the positively acting ethylene-responsive element (ERE). In addition, application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, blocked ozone-induced class I β-1,3-glucanase promoter activity. Enhancer activity and ethylene-responsiveness depended on the integrity of the GCC boxes, cis-acting elements present in the ERE of the class I β-1,3-glucanase and the basic-type pathogenesis-related PR-1 protein (PRB-1b) gene promoters. The minimal PRB-1b promoter containing only the ERE with intact GCC boxes, was sufficient to confer 10-fold ozone inducibility to a GUS-reporter gene, while a substitution mutation in the GCC box abolished ozone responsiveness. The ERE region of the class I β-1,3-glucanase promoter containing two intact GCC boxes confered strong ozone inducibility to a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S RNA promoter, whereas two single-base substitution in the GCC boxes resulted in a complete loss of ozone inducibility. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that ethylene is signalling ozone-induced expression of class I β-1,3-glucanase and PRB-1b genes. Promoter analysis of the stilbene synthase Vst1 gene unravelled different regions for ozone and ethylene-responsiveness. Application of 1-MCP blocked ethylene-induced Vst1 induction, but ozone induction was not affected. This shows that ozone-induced gene expression occurs via at least two different signalling mechanisms and suggests an additional ethylene independent signalling pathway for ozone-induced expression of genes involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis.

ethylene gene regulation ozone pathogenesis-related promoter resveratrol stilbene 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Grimmig
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria N. Gonzalez-Perez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
    • 4
    • 5
  • Regina Vögeli-Lange
    • 4
    • 6
  • Fred MeinsJr.
    • 4
  • Rüdiger Hain
    • 2
  • Josep Penuelas
    • 3
  • Bernd Heidenreich
    • 1
  • Christian Langebartels
    • 1
  • Dieter Ernst
    • 1
  • Heinrich SandermannJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.GSF-National Research Center for Environment and HealthInstitute of Biochemical Plant PathologyNeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Bayer Crop Science, Target ResearchMonheimGermany
  3. 3.CREAF, Facultat di CienciesUniversitat AutonomaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, a branch of the Novartis Research FoundationBaselSwitzerland
  5. 5.Institut für Biologie II, BotanikUniversität FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  6. 6.Syngenta Crop Protection AGBaselSwitzerland

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