Alban D.H., Host G.E., Elioff J.D. and Shadis D. 1994. Soil and vegetation response to soil compaction and forest floor removal after aspen harvesting. USDA Forest Serv., North Central Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Grand Rapids, MN, Res. Pap. NC-315.
Bartos D.L. and Mueggler W.F. 1981. Early succession in aspen communities following fire in western Wyoming. J. Range Manage. 34: 315–318.Google Scholar
Bartos D.L. and Mueggler W.F. 1982. Early succession following clearcutting of aspen communities in northern Utah. J. Range Manage. 35: 764–768.Google Scholar
Bates P.C., Blinn C.R. and Alm A.A. 1993. Harvesting impacts on quaking aspen regeneration in northern Minnesota. Can. J. For. Res. 23: 2403–2412.Google Scholar
Beckingham J.D., Corns I.G.W. and Archibald J.H. 1996. Field guide to ecosites of west-central Alberta. Can. Forest Serv., Northern Forestry Cent., Edmonton, AB, Spec. Rep. 9.
Bella I.E. 1986. Logging practices and subsequent development of aspen stands in east-central Saskatchewan. For. Chron. 62: 81–83.Google Scholar
Bonan G.B. and Shugart H.H. 1989. Environmental factors and ecological processes in boreal forests. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 1–28.Google Scholar
Brown J.K. and Roussopoulos P.J. 1974. Eliminating biases in the planar intersect method for estimating volumes of small fuels. For. Sci. 20: 350–356.Google Scholar
Brown J.K. and DeByle N.V. 1987. Fire damage, mortality and suckering in aspen. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 1100–1109.Google Scholar
Crouch G.L. 1983. Aspen regeneration after commercial clearcutting in southwestern Colorado. J. For. 81: 316–319.Google Scholar
Darrah D.W. 1991. Aspen harvesting: a government perspective. In: Navratil S. and Chapman P.B. (eds), Aspen management for the 21st century. Can. For. Serv., Northern Forestry Cent., Poplar Council of Canada, Edmonton, AB, pp. 61–66.
Day M.W. 1944. The root system of aspen. Am. Midl. Nat. 32: 502–509.Google Scholar
Day R.J. and Bell F.W. 1988. Development of crop plans for hardwood and conifer stands on boreal mixedwood sites. In: Samoil J.K. (ed.), Management and utilization of northern mixedwoods. Can. For. Serv., Northern Forestry Cent., Edmonton, AB Inf. Rep. NOR-X-296., pp. 87–98.
DeByle N.V., Bevins C.D. and Fischer W.C. 1987. Wildfire occurrence in aspen in the interior western United States. West. J. Appl. For. 2: 73–76.Google Scholar
DesRochers A. and Lieffers V.J. 2001. Root biomass of regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides
) stands of different densities in Alberta. Can. J. For. Res. 31: 1012–1018.Google Scholar
DesRochers A., Landhäusser S.M. and Lieffers V.J. 2002. Coarse and fine root respiration in Populus tremuloides
. Tree Phys. 22: 725–732.Google Scholar
Farmer R.E. Jr 1962. Aspen root sucker formation and apical dominance. For. Sci. 8: 403–410.Google Scholar
Fraser E.C., Lieffers V.J., Landhäusser S.M. and Frey B.R. 2002. Soil nutrition and temperature as drivers of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides
Michx.) root suckering. Can. J. For. Res. 32: 1685–1691.Google Scholar
Frey B.R. 2001. Impacts of forest floor disturbance on vegetation and nutrient dynamics in partial cut and clearcut stands, MSc, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB 89 p.Google Scholar
Gifford G.F. 1967. The influence of growth media, temperatures and light intensities on aspen root and top growth. USDA Forest Serv., Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ogden, UT, Res. Note INT-67.
Horton K.W. and Maini J.S. 1964. Aspen reproduction: its characteristics and control. Can. Dep. Forestry and Rural Dev., Ottawa, ON, Forest Research Branch Rep. 64-0-12.
Horton K.W. and Hopkins E.J. 1966. Influence of fire on aspen suckering. Can. Dep. Forestry and Rural Dev., Ottawa, ON, Forest Research Branch Pub. 1095.
Hungerford R.D. 1988. Soil temperatures and suckering in burned and unburned aspen stands in Idaho. USDA For. Serv., Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ogden, UT, Res. Note INT-378.
Kemperman J.A. 1978. Sucker-root relationships in aspen. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, ON, Forest Research Note 12.
Landhäusser S.M. and Lieffers V.J. 1998. Growth of Populus tremuloides
in association with Calamagrostis canadensis
. Can. J. For. Res. 28: 396–401.Google Scholar
Landhäusser S.M. and Lieffers V.J. 2002. Leaf area renewal, root retention and carbohydrate reserves in a clonal tree species following aboveground disturbance. J. Ecol. (in press).
Lavertu D., Mauffette Y. and Bergeron Y. 1994. Effects of stand age and litter removal on the regeneration of Populus tremuloides
. J. Veg. Sci. 5: 561–568.Google Scholar
Lieffers V.J., MacDonald S.E. and Hogg E.H. 1993. Ecology of and control strategies for Calamagrostis canadensis
in boreal forest sites. Can. J. For. Sci. 23: 2070–2077.Google Scholar
Lieffers V.J. and Beck J.A. Jr 1994. A semi-natural approach to mixedwood management in the prairie provinces. For. Chron. 70: 260–264.Google Scholar
Lu E. and Sucoff E.I. 2001. Responses of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides
) seedlings to solution calcium. Can. J. For. Res. 31: 123–131.Google Scholar
Maini J.S. and Horton K.W. 1966a. Reproductive response of Populus and associated Pteridium to cutting, burning and scarification. Can. Dep. Forestry and Rural Dev., Ottawa, ON, Forest Research Branch Pub. 1155.
Maini J.S. and Horton K.W. 1966b. Vegetative Propagation of Populus
spp. I. Influence of temperature on formation and initial growth of aspen suckers. Can. J. Bot. 44: 1183–1189.Google Scholar
Navratil S., Brantner K. and Zasada J. 1991. Regeneration in the mixedwoods. In: Shortreid A. (ed.), Northern Mixedwood '89: Proceedings of a symposium held at Fort St. John, B.C. Sept. 12–14, 1989. Can. Forest Serv., Northern Forestry Cent., B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC FRDA Rep. 164., pp. 32–48.
Perala D.A. 1974. Prescribed burning in an aspen-mixed hardwood forest. Can. J. For. Res. 4: 222–228.Google Scholar
Perala D.A. 1978. Aspen sucker production and growth from outplanted root cuttings. USDA For. Serv., North Central Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Grand Rapids, MN. Res. Note NC-241.
Perala D.A. 1990. Quaking aspen. In: Burns R.M. and Honkala B.H. (eds), Silvics of North America. Hardwoods. USDA For. Serv., Washington D.C. Agric. Hbook 654., pp. 555–569.
Peterson E.B. and Peterson N.M. 1992. Ecology, management, and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the Prairie Provinces. Can. Forest Serv., Northern Forestry Cent. Spec. Rep. 1.
Rowe J.S. 1972. Forest regions of Canada. Dep. of Environment, Can. Forest Serv., Ottawa, ON, Pub. 1300.
Schier G.A. and Zasada J.C. 1973. Role of carbohydrate reserves in the development of root suckers in Populus tremuloides
. Can. J. For. Res. 3: 243–250.Google Scholar
Schier G.A. and Campbell R.B. 1978. Aspen sucker regeneration following burning and clearcutting on two sites in the Rocky Mountains. For. Sci. 24: 303–308.Google Scholar
Schier G.A. and Smith A.D. 1979. Sucker regeneration in a Utah clone after clearcutting, partial cutting, scarification and girdling. USDA For. Serv., Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Ogden, UT, GTR INT-253.
Shepperd W.D. 1996. Response of aspen root suckers to regeneration methods and post-harvest protection. USDA For. Serv., Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, CO, Res. Pap. RM-RP-324.
Schmidt M.G., Macdonald S.E. and Rothwell R.L. 1996. Impacts of harvesting and mechanical site preparation on soil chemical properties of mixed-wood boreal forest sites in Alberta. Can. J. Soil Sci. 76: 531–540.Google Scholar
Steneker G.A. 1974. Factors affecting the suckering of trembling aspen. For. Chron. 50: 32–34.Google Scholar
Steneker G.A. 1976. Guide to the silvicultural management of trembling aspen in the prairie provinces. Can. Forest Serv., Northern Forestry Cent., Edmonton, AB, Inf. Rep. NOR-X-164.
Steneker G.A. and Walters M.A. 1971. The effect of root length upon the suckering of trembling aspen. Can. Forest Serv., Northern Forestry Cent., Dep. Fish. and Forestry, Edmonton, AB, Inf. Rep. A-X-46.
Strong W.L. and LaRoi G.H. 1983. Root-system morphology of common boreal forest trees in Alberta, Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 13: 1164–1173.Google Scholar
Tew R.K. 1970. Root carbohydrate reserves in vegetative reproduction of aspen. For. Sci. 16: 318–320.Google Scholar
Vitousek P.M., Andariese S.W., Matson P.A., Morris L. and Sanford R.L. 1992. Effects of harvest intensity, site preparation, and herbicide use on soil nitrogen transformations in a young loblolly pine plantation. For. Ecol. Manage. 49: 277–292.Google Scholar
Weingartner D.H. 1980. The effects of scarification on trembling aspen in northern Ontario: a preliminary report. For. Chron. 56: 173–175.Google Scholar
Zehngraff P.J. 1946. How to improve aspen stocking following summer logging. USDA For. Serv., Lake States Forest Exp. Sta., St. Paul, MN.
Zillgitt W.M. 1951. Disking to increase stocking in aspen stands. USDA For. Serv., Lake States Forest Exp. Sta., St. Paul, MN, Tech Note 357.