A Meta-Analysis of Structural and Functional Brain Imaging in Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type: A Neuroimaging Profile
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- Zakzanis, K.K., Graham, S.J. & Campbell, Z. Neuropsychol Rev (2003) 13: 1. doi:10.1023/A:1022318921994
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We conducted a quantitative review of the imaging literature using meta-analytic methodology to characterize further the magnitude of hippocampal deficit in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine whether other neuroanatomic structures in AD can better discriminate the disease from normal aging. Additionally, we parceled the discriminability of neuroanatomic structures by duration of disease to determine those structures most sensitive to AD in its early and late stages. One hundred twenty-one studies published between 1984 and 2000 met criteria for inclusion in the present analysis. In total, structural (i.e., CT and MRI) and functional (i.e., SPECT and PET) neuroimaging results from 3511 patients with AD, and 1632 normal healthy controls were recorded across meta-analyses. Our results include neuroimaging profiles for both early onset and longer duration patients with AD. In sum, these profiles yield a signature of diagnostic markers in both cortical and subcortical neuroanatomic areas. This signature is consistent with the clinical phenomenology of Alzheimer's dementia and should aid in the positive identification of AD.