Ackerman, B. P., Kogos, J., Youngstrom, E., Schoff, K., and Izard, C. (1999). Family instability and the problem behaviors of children from economically disadvantaged families. Dev. Psychol. 35: 258–268.
Ackerman, P. T., Newton, J. E., McPherson, W. B., Jones, J. G., and Dykman, R. A. (1998). Prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric diagnoses in three groups of abused children (sexual, physical, and both). Child Abuse Negl. 22: 759–774.
Allen, D. M., and Tarnowski, K. J. (1989). Depressive characteristics of physically abused children. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 17: 1–11.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn.). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.
Anderson, B., and Silver, B. (1986). The validity of survey responses: Interviews of multiple respondents in a household from a survey of Soviet emigrants (Research Report No. 86-89). University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor.
Barrera, M. (1986). Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models. Am. J. Community Psychol. 14: 413–445.
Boudewyn, A. C., and Liem, J. H. (1995). Childhood sexual abuse as a precursor to depression and self-destructive behavior in adulthood. J. Trauma. Stress 8: 445–459.
Brayden, R. M., Deitrich-Maclean, G., Dietrich, M.S., and Sherrod, K. B. (1995). Evidence for specific effects of childhood sexual abuse on mental well-being and physical self-esteem. Child Abuse Negl. 19: 1255–1262.
Brown, J., and Cohen, P. (1999). Childhood abuse and neglect: Specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 38: 1490–1497.
Browne, A., and Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of sexual abuse: A review of the research. Psychol. Bull. 99: 66–77.
Carbonell, D. M., Reinherz, H.Z., and Giaconia, R.M. (1998). Risk and resilience in late adolescence. Child Adolesc. Soc. Work J. 15: 251–272.
Conger, R., Conger, K., Elder, G., Lorenz, F., Simons, R., and Whitbeck, L. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Dev. 63: 526–541.
Coyne, J. C. (1976). Depression and the response of others. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85: 186–193.
Elder, G., Van Nguyen, T., and Caspi, A. (1985). Linking family hardship to children's lives. Child Dev. 56: 361–375.
Feiring, C., Taska, L., and Lewis, M. (1996). A process model for understanding adaptation to sexual abuse: The role of shame in defining stigmatization. Child Abuse Negl. 20: 767–782.
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., and Lynskey, M. (1994). The childhoods of multiple problem adolescents: A 15 year longitudinal study. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 36: 1123–1140.
Freedman, D., Thorton, A., Camburn, D., Alwin, D., and Young DeMarco, L. (1988). The life history calendar: A technique for collecting retrospective data. In Clogg, C. (ed.), Sociological Methodology. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 37–68.
Furstenberg, F. F., Brooks-Gunn, J., and Morgan, S. P. (1987). Adolescent mothers later in life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gecas, V. (1989). The social psychology of self-efficacy. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 15: 291–316.
George, L. (1999). Life-course perspectives on mental health. In Aneshensel, C. S., and Phelan, J. C. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp. 565–583.
Gore, S. (1981). Stress-buffering functions of social support: An appraisal and clarification of research methods. In Dohrenwend, B. S., and Dohrenwend, B. P. (eds.), Stressful Life Events and Their Contexts. Prodist, New York, pp. 202–222.
Green, R. (1993). Child sexual abuse: Immediate and long-term effects and intervention. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 32: 890–902.
Harmer, A., Sanderson, J., and Martin, P. (1999). Influence of negative childhood experiences on psychological functioning, social support, and parenting for mothers recovering from addiction. Child Abuse Negl. 23: 421–433.
Harris, T., Brown, G., and Bifulco, A. (1990). Loss of parent in childhood and adult psychiatric disorder: A tentative overall model. Dev. Psychopathol. 2: 311–328.
Henderson, S., Byrne, D., and Duncan-Jones, P. (1981). Neurosis and the Social Environment. Academic Press, New York.
Holmes, T., and Rahe, R. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. J. Psychosomatic Res. 11: 213–218.
Holmes, T., and Robins, L. (1988). The role of parental disciplinary practices in the development of depression and alcoholism. Psychiatry 51: 24–36.
Hotaling, G. T., and Sugarman, D.B. (1986). An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: The current state of knowledge. Violence Vict. 1: 101–124.
Kessler, R. C., Gillis-Light, J., Magee, W. J., Kendler, K. S., and Eaves, L. J. (1997). Childhood adversity and adult psychopathology. In Gotlib, I. H., and Wheaton, B. (eds.), Stress and Adversity Over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp. 29–49.
Kessler, R. C., and Magee, W.J. (1994a). Childhood adversities and adult depression: Basic patterns of association in a U.S. national survey. Psychol. Med. 23: 679–690.
Kessler, R. C., and Magee, W.J. (1994b). Childhood family violence and adult recurrent depression. J. Health Soc. Behav. 35: 13–27.
Kessler, R. C., and Wethington, E. (1991). The reliability of life events reports in a community survey. Psychol. Med. 21: 723–738.
Lin, N., and Peek, M. K. (1999). Social networks and mental health. In Horowitz, A. V., and Scheid, T. L. (eds.), A handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 241–258.
Lloyd, D. A., and Turner, R. J. (2001). Cumulative adversity and post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence from a diverse community sample of young adults. Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Social Stress, Portsmouth, NH, September 2001.
Lopez, M. A., and Heffer, R.W. (1995). Self concept and social competence of university student victims of childhood physical abuse. Child Abuse Negl. 22: 183–195.
Mason, K. (1986). Detroit child care study. (unpublished manuscript) University of Michigan Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor.
McIntyre, A. (1991). Attribution of control and ego development: Marker variables for a model of foster care risk. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 12: 413–428.
McLeod, J. D. (1991). Childhood parental loss and adult depression. J. Health Soc. Behav. 32: 205–220.
McLeod, J. D., and Nonnemaker, J. (1999). Social stratification and inequality. In Aneshensel, C. S., and Phelan, J. C. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health Kluwer Academic, New York, pp. 321–344.
Mirowsky, J., and Ross, C. (1986). Social patterns of distress. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 12: 23–45.
Monroe, S. M., and Steiner, S. C. (1986). Social support and psychopathology: Interrelations with existing disorder, stress, and personality. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 95: 29–39.
O'Grady, D., and Metz, J. R. (1987). Resilience in children at high risk for psychological disorder. J. Pediatr. Psychol. 12: 3–23.
Pearlin, L. I. (1989). The sociological study of stress. J. Health Soc. Behav. 30: 241–256.
Pearlin, L. I. (1999). The stress process revisited: Reflections of concepts and their interrelationships. In Aneshensel, C. S., and Phelan, J. C. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health Kluwer Academic, New York, pp. 395–416.
Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M., Menaghan, E., and Mullan, J. (1981). The stress process. J. Health Soc. Behav. 22: 337–356.
Pearlin, L. I., and Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. J. Health Soc. Behav. 19: 501–517.
Pearlin, L. I., and Turner, H. A. (1987). The family as a context of the stress process. In Kasl, S. V., and Cooper, C. L. (eds.), Stress and Health: Issues in Research Methodology. Wiley, New York, pp. 143–166.
Prusoff, B. A., Merikangas, K. R., and Weissman, M. M. (1988). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of psychiatric disorder: Recall 4 years later. J. Psychiatr. Res. 22: 107–117.
Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl. Psychol. Meas. 1: 385–401.
Rodgers, B. (1990). Adult affective disorder and early environment. Br. J. Psychiatry 157: 539–550.
Rodgers, B. (1991). Models of stress, vulnerability, and affective disorder. J. Affect. Disord. 21: 1–13.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Image. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Rosenfield, S. (1989). The effects of women's employment: Personal control and sex differences in mental health. J. Health Soc. Behav. 30: 77–91.
Ross, C., and Wu, C. (1996). Education, age, and the cumulative advantage in health. J. Health Soc. Behav. 37: 104–120.
Russell, D. (1986). The Secret Trauma. Basic Books, New York.
Rutter, M. (1989). Pathways from childhood to adult life. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 30: 23–51.
Rutter, M., and Quinton, D. (1977). Psychiatric disorder--Ecological factors in concepts of causation. In McGurk, H. (ed.), Ecological Factors in Human Development North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 173–187.
Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. G., and Seigel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 46: 932–946.
Seligman, M. (1975). Helplessness: On Development, Depression, and Death. Freeman, San Francisco.
Shaw, D. S., Vondra, J. I., Hommerding, K. D., Keenan, K., and Dunn, M. (1994). Chronic family adversity and early child behavior problems: A longitudinal study of low income families. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 35: 1109–1122.
Silver, L. B., Dublin, C. C., and Lourie, R. S. (1969). Does violence breed violence? Contributions from a study of the child abuse syndrome. Am. J. Psychiatry 126: 404–407.
Smith, C., and Carlson, B. E. (1997). Stress, coping, and resilience in children and youth. Soc. Serv. Rev. 71: 231–256.
Sorenson, S. B., Rutter, C. M., and Aneshensel, C. S. (1991). Depression in the community: An investigation into age of onset. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 59: 541–546.
Spengler, P., and Wittchen, H. (1989). Procedural validity of standardized symptoms questions for the assessment of psychotic symptoms: A comparison of the CIDI with two clinical methods. Compr. Psychiatry 29: 309–322.
Taylor, J. R., Turner, R. J., and Van Gundy, K. T. (2001). Social stress, personal attributes, and social psychological distress in the transition to adulthood: Racial/ethnic comparisons. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, Anaheim, CA, August 2001.
Tennant, C. (1988). Parental loss in childhood: Its effect in adult life. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 45: 1045–1050.
Thoits, P. A. (1982). Life stress, social support and psychological vulnerability: Epidemiological considerations. J. Community Psychiatry, 10: 341–362.
Thoits, P. A. (1999). Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In Aneshensel, C. S., and Phelan, J. C. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health Kluwer Academic, New York, pp. 345–368.
Turner, R. J., Frankel, G., and Levin, D. (1983). Social support: Conceptualization, measurement and implications for mental health. In Greenley, J. I. (ed.), Community and Mental Health (Vol. III). JAI press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 67–110.
Turner, R. J., and Lloyd, D. A. (1995). Life traumas and mental health: The significance of cumulative adversity. J. Health Soc. Behav. 36: 360–376.
Turner, R. J., and Lloyd, D. A. (1999). The stress process and the social distribution of depression. J. Health Soc. Behav. 40: 374–404.
Turner, R. J., and Lloyd, D. A. (2001). Race/ethnic contrasts in mental health and substance abuse problems: The significance of lifetime exposure to major and potentially traumatic events. Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Social Stress, Portsmouth, NH, September 2001.
Turner, R. J., and Roszell, P. (1994). Psychosocial resources and the stress process. In Stress and mental health: Contemporary Issues and Prospects for the Future Plenum, New York, pp. 179–212.
Turner, R. J., and Turner, J. B. (1999). Social integration and support. In Aneshensel, C. S., and Phelan, J. C. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health Kluwer Academic, NewYork, pp. 301–320.
Turner, R. J., and Wheaton, B. (1997). Checklist measurement of stressful life events. In Cohen, S. C., and Kessler, R. C. (eds.), Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 29–58.
Turner, R. J., Wheaton, B., and Lloyd, D. A. (1995). The epidemiology of social stress. Am. Sociol. Rev. 60: 104–125.
Vondra, J., Barnett, D., and Cicchetti, D. (1990). Self concept, motivation, and competence among preschoolers from maltreating and comparison families. Child Abuse Negl. 14: 525–540.
Wacker, H., Battegay, R., and Schlosser, C. (1990). Using the CIDI-C in the general population. In Stefains, C. N., Rabavilas, A. D., and Soldatos, C. R. (eds.), Psychiatry: A World Perspective Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 138–143.
Weiss, R. (1974). The provisions of social relationships. In Rubin, Z. (ed.), Doing Unto Others. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 17–26.
West, M., and Prinz, R. (1987). Parental alcoholism and childhood psychopathology. Psychol. Bull. 102: 204–218.
Wheaton, B. (1980). The sociogenesis of psychological disorder: An attributional theory. J. Health Soc. Behav. 21: 100–124.
Wheaton, B. (1991). The specification of chronic stress: Models and measurement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. Cincinnati, OH, August 1991.
Wheaton, B. (1994). Sampling the stress universe. In Avison, W. R., and Gotlib, I. H. (eds.), Stress and mental health: Contemporary issues and prospects for the future. Plenum, New York, pp. 77–114.
Wheaton, B., Roszell, P., and Hall, K. (1997). The impact of twenty childhood and adult traumatic stressors on the risk of psychiatric disorder. In Gotlib, I. H., and Wheaton, B. (eds.), Stress and Adversity Over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 50–72.
Widom, A. (1998). Childhood victimization: Early adversity and subsequent psychopathology. In Dohrenwend, B. P. (eds.), Adversity, Stress, and Psychopathology Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 81–95.
Wittchen, H., Robins, L., Cottler, L., Sartorius, N., Burke, J., and Regier, D. (1991). Cross cultural feasibility, reliability, and sources of variance in the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Br. J. Psychiatry 159: 645–653.
World Health Organization (1990). Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, Version 1.0). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Zigler, E., and Butterfield, E. C. (1968). Motivational aspects of changes in IQ test performance of culturally deprived nursery school children. Child Development. 39: 1–14.