Effect of water hardness on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water hardness onClarias gariepinus egg hatchability and larval viability.The fertilized eggs were incubated at 28 °C and with waterhardnesses ranging from 10–700 mg/l CaCO3. Themean hatching rate fluctuated between 42.31% at hardness of 10mg/land 64.66% at 2000 mg/l. Abnormalities in the larvae were observedbeyond 200 mg/l and increased with increase in water hardness. Thehighest larval survival of 71.05% was recorded at 60 mg/l waterhardness. Based on statistics performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) andfurther compared with Duncan's multiple range test (p = 0.05), the resultsimplythat very soft water (0–10 mg/l) and very hard water (300mg/l and above) are not suitable for Clariasegg incubation and larval rearing. A water hardness of 30–60mg/l CaCO3 is recommended for optimal normal hatching,high viability and maximum larval development of Clariasgariepinus.
- Aguigwo J.N. 1993. Inter and intra specific hybridization of Clarias albopunctatus and Heterobrachuslongifilis. J. Aquat. Sci. 8: 45–50.
- Aguigwo J.N. 1995. Studies on the biology of larva of Clariasalbopunctatus (N. and L.), influence of light on the survival of larvae. J. Aquat. Sci. 10: 15–17.
- Aguigwo J.N.1998a. Studies on comparative growth performance of Clarias anguillaris and its hybridheteroclarias. J. Sci. Eng. Tech. 5: 888–897.
- Aguigwo J.N. 1998b. Development and growth of laboratory reared larvae of Clarias albopunctatus(N. & L.). J. Aquat. Sci. 13: 19–22.
- Aguigwo J.N. 1999. Studies on the biology of larvae of Clariasalbopunctatus (N. & L.): effect of different diets on the growth and survival of larvae. J. Aquat. Sci. 14: 29–32.
- Ajuzie C.C. and Appelbaum S. 1996. Best temperature for African catfish eggs and larvae. Fish Farmer Internationalfile 10: 14–15.
- Boyd C.E. 1979. Water quality in warmwater fish ponds. Agri. Exp. Sta. AuburnUniv. Auburn, Alabama, 359 pp.
- Britz P.J. and Hecht T. 1989. Effects of salinity on growth and survival of Africansharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae. J. Appl. Icthyol. 5: 194–202.
- Brown D.J.A. and Lynam S. 1981.The effect of sodium and calcium concentration on the hatching of eggs and the survival of the yolk sac fry of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) at low pH. J. Fish Biol. 19: 205–211.
- Chung L., Lee Y.K., Chang S.T., Liu C.C. and Chen F.C.1980. The biology and artificial propagation of farm fishes. IDRC Manuscript Rep. 15: 100–101.
- Delince G.A., Campbell D., Jansen J.A.L. and Kutty M.N. 1987. Seed production. African Regional Aquaculture Centre (ARAC), Port Harcourt, 114 pp.
- Ekweozor I.K.E., Bobmanuel N.O. and Gabriel U.U. 2001. Sublethal effects ofammoniacal fertilizer effluents on three commercial fish species from the Niger Delta Area. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 5: 63–68.
- Gonzal A.C., Analar E.V. and Pavico J.M.F. 1987. The effects of water hardness on the hatching and viabilityof silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs. Aquaculture 64: 111–188.
- Huisman E.A. 1986. TheAquacultural potential of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822). In: Huisman E.A. (ed.), Aquaculture Research in African Region. Proceedings of the African Seminar on Aquaculture, Kisumau, Kenya. Pudoc, Wageningen.
- Kane A.S., Bennet R.O. and May E.B. 1990. Effect of hardness and salinity on survival of stripped bass larvae. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 10: 67–71.
- Nsofor C.I. and Aguigwo J.N. 1995. Studies on theBiology of Clarias albopunctatus (N.&.L); effect of food and stocking density on the growth and survival of fingerlings. J. Sci. Eng. Tech. 2: 258–266.
- Obasohan E.E. and Oronsaye J.A.O. 2000. Heavy metals in water, sediments andsome important commercial fish species from Ikpeba River, Benin city, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 4: 63–68.
- Oladosu G.A., Busar A.N., Uka A., Oladosu O.O. and Ayiala O.A. 1999. Influence of salinity on the developmentalstages of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 2: 29–34.
- Onuoha G.C. and Nwadukwe F.O. 1990. Influence of liquid petroleum refinery effluent on the hatching success of Clarias gariepinus (African Mud Fish) Eggs. Environment and Ecology 8: 1201–1206.
- Piper R.G., McElwain J.B., Orme L.E., McCraren J.P., FowlerL.G. and Leonard J.R. 1982. Fish hatchery management. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA, 517 pp.
- Sprague J.B. 1985. Factors that modify toxicity. In: Rand G.M. and Petrocelli S.R. (eds), Fundamentals ofAquatic Toxicology. Harper and Row, New York, pp. 124–163.
- Wilkinson L., Hill M., Welna J.P. and BirkenbeuellG.K. 1992. Statistics. Systat, Inc., Evanston, IL, USA, 750 pp.
- Effect of water hardness on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus
Volume 10, Issue 1 , pp 57-64
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Clarias eggs
- Water hardness
- Yolk sac larvae