The Urban Review

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 317–342

The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment


  • Russell J. Skiba
    • Department of Counseling and Educational PsychologyIndiana University
    • 100 Smith Research CenterIndiana Education Policy Center
  • Robert S. Michael
    • Indiana Education Policy CenterIndiana University
  • Abra Carroll Nardo
    • Department of Counseling and Educational PsychologyIndiana University
  • Reece L. Peterson
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln

DOI: 10.1023/A:1021320817372

Cite this article as:
Skiba, R.J., Michael, R.S., Nardo, A.C. et al. The Urban Review (2002) 34: 317. doi:10.1023/A:1021320817372


The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than socioeconomic differences. Both racial and gender differences remained when controlling for socioeconomic status. Finally, although evidence emerged that boys engage more frequently in a broad range of disruptive behavior, there were no similar findings for race. Rather, there appeared to be a differential pattern of treatment, originating at the classroom level, wherein African-American students are referred to the office for infractions that are more subjective in interpretation. Implications for teacher training and structural reform are explored.

minorityoverrepresentationschool disciplinesuspensionexpulsion

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2002