, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 1011-1018

Evolution and isoform specificity of plant 14-3-3 proteins

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Abstract

The 14-3-3 proteins, once thought of as obscure mammalian brain proteins, are fast becoming recognized as major regulators of plant primary metabolism and of other cellular processes. Their presence as large gene families in plants underscores their essential role in plant physiology. We have examined the Arabidopsis thaliana 14-3-3 gene family, which currently is the largest and most complete 14-3-3 family with at least 12 expressed members and 15 genes from the now completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. The phylogenetic branching of this family serves as the prototypical model for comparison with other large plant 14-3-3 families and as such may serve to rationalize clustering in a biological context. Equally important for ascribing common functions for the various 14-3-3 isoforms is determining an isoform-specific correlation with localization and target partnering. A summary of localization information available in the literature is presented. In an effort to identify specific 14-3-3 isoform location and participation in cellular processes, we have produced a panel of isoform-specific antibodies to Arabidopsis thaliana 14-3-3s and present initial immunolocalization studies that suggest biologically relevant, discriminative partnering of 14-3-3 isoforms.