Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 281–295

Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

  • M.C. Roco
  • W.S. Bainbridge

DOI: 10.1023/A:1021152023349

Cite this article as:
Roco, M. & Bainbridge, W. Journal of Nanoparticle Research (2002) 4: 281. doi:10.1023/A:1021152023349


In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.

About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco & Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA).

nanoscience nanotechnology biotechnology information technology cognitive science unifying principles convergence 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.C. Roco
    • 1
  • W.S. Bainbridge
    • 1
  1. 1.National Science FoundationArlingtonUSA

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