, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 501-515

Behavioral Sabotage of Plant Defense: Do Vein Cuts and Trenches Reduce Insect Exposure to Exudate?

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Abstract

Many insect folivores sever veins or cut trenches before feeding on leaves that emit fluid from latex, resin, or phloem canals. The behaviors reportedly function to reduce the insect's exposure to exudate. This hypothesis was tested with three species that sever leaf midribs and two species that trench. In each case, the insect's cuts reduced exudation at the distal feeding site by at least 94% relative to an adjacent control leaf. However, most of the insects contacted exudate during the vein-cutting/trenching operation, which could potentially negate any benefits received during feeding. To estimate how much exudate red milkweed beetles (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus) ingest, I weighed beetles before and after vein cutting, and simulated beetle feeding on leaves with and without vein cuts. By severing veins, the beetles decreased their total ingestion of exudate by at least 92%.