Alongi, D. M. 1987. The influence of mangrove-derived tannins on intertidal meiobenthos in tropical estuaries. Oecologia 71:537–540.
Appel, H. 1993. Phenolics in ecological interactions: the importance of oxidation. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:1521–1552.
Arnold, T.M. and Targett, N.M. 2000. Evidence for metabolic turnover of polyphenolics in tropical brown algae. J. Chem. Ecol. 26:1393–1410.
Arnold, T. M. and Targett, N. M. 2002. To grow and defend: lack of tradeoffs for brown algal phlorotannins. Oikos. In press.
Arnold, T. M., Targett, N. M., Tanner, C. E., Hatch, W. I., and Ferrari, K. E. 2001. Evidence for methyl jasmonate-induced phlorotannin production in Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae). J. Phycol. 37:1026–1029.
Baerlocher, F. and Newell, S. Y. 1994. Phenolics and proteins affecting palatability of Spartina leaves to the gastropod Littoraria irrorata. Mar. Ecol. 15:65–75.
Basak, U. C., Das, A. B., and Das, P. 1996. Chlorophylls, carotenoids, proteins and secondary metabolites in leaves of 14 species of mangrove. Bull. Mar. Sci. 58: 654–659.
Basak, U. C., Das, A. B., and Das, P. 1998. Seasonal changes in organic constituents in leaves of nine mangrove species. Mar. Freshwater Res. 49:369–372.
Boettcher, A. A. and Targett, N.M. 1993. The role of polyphenolic molecular size in the reduction of assimilation efficiency in the herbivorous marine fish Xiphister mucosus. Ecology 74:891–903.
Bryant, J. P., Chapin, F. S., and Klein, D. R. 1983. Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory. Oikos 40:357–368.
Buchsbaum, R., Valiela, I., and Swain, T. 1984. The role of phenolic compounds and other plant constituents in feeding by Canada geese in a coastal marsh. Oecologia 63:343–349.
Buchsbaum, R. N., Short, F. T., and Cheney, D. P. 1990. Phenolic-nitrogen interactions in eelgrass, Zostera marina L.: possible implications for disease resistance. Aquat. Bot. 37:291–297.
Camilleri, J. 1989. Leaf choice by crustaceans in a mangrove forest in Queensland. Mar. Biol. 102:453–459. MARINE TANNINS 1931
Cebrian, J., Duarte, C. M., Marba, N., Enriquez, S., Gallegos, M., and Olesen, B. 1996. Herbivory on Posidonia oceanica: magnitude and variability in the Spanish Mediterranean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 130:147–155.
Cebrian, J., Duarte, C. M., Agawin, N. S. R., and Merino, M. 1998. Leaf growth response to simulated herbivory: a comparison among seagrass species. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 220:67–81.
Collen, J. and Davison, I. R. 1999. Reactive oxygen production and damage in intertidal Fucus spp. (Phaeophyceae). J. Phycol. 35:54–61.
Cronin, G. 2001. Resource allocation in seaweeds and marine invertebrates: chemical defense patterns in relation to defense theory, p. 325–354, in J. B. McClintock and B. J. Baker (eds.). Marine Chemical Ecology CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Dawes, C. J. 1998. Marine Botany. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Den Hartog, C. 1996. Sudden declines of seagrass beds; “wasting disease” and other disasters, pp. 307–315, in J. Kuo, R. C. Phillips, K. I. Walkers, and H. Kirkman (eds.). Seagrass Biology: Proceedings of an InternationalWorkshop, 25–29 January 1996, Rottnest Island,Western Austalia.
Duranko, M. J. and Kuss, K. M. 1994. Effects of Labyrinthula infection on the photosynthentic capacity of Thalassia testudinum. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54:727–732.
Feller, I. R. 1996. Effects of nutrient enrichment on growth and herbivory of dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Ecol. Monogr. 65:477–505.
Filip, Z. and Alberts, J. J. 1989. Humic substances isolated from Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.) following long-term decomposition in sea water. Sci. Total Environ. 83:273–285.
Greenway, M. 1995. Trophic relationships of macrofauna within a Jamaican seagrass meadow and the role of the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck). Bull. Mar. Sci. 56:719–736.
Hamilton, J. G., Zangerl, A. R., Delucia E. H., and Berenbaum, M. R. 2002. The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis: its rise and fall. Ecol. Lett. 4:86–95.
Hammerschmidt, R. and Smith-baker, J. A. 1999. Roles of salicylic acid in disease resistance, pp. 37–54, in A. A. Agrawal, S. Tuzun, and E. Bent (eds.). Induced Plant Defenses Against Pathogens and Herbivores: Biochemistry, Ecology, and Agriculture. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Hammerstrom, K., Dethier, M. N., and Duggins, D.O. 1998. Rapid phlorotannin induction and relaxation in five Washington kelps. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 165:293–305.
Harrison, P. G. 1982. Control of microbial growth and of amphipod grazing by water-soluble compounds from the leaves of Zostera marina. Mar. Biol. 67:225–230.
Harrison, P. G. and Chan, A. T. 1980. Inhibition of the growth of micro-algae and bacteria by extracts of eelgrass (Zostera marina) leaves. Mar. Biol. 61:21–26.
Harrison, P. G. and Durance, C. 1989. Reductions in photosynthetic carbon uptake in epiphytic diatoms by water-soluble extracts of leaves of Zostera marina. Mar. Biol. 90:117–119.
Hay, M. E. and Steinberg, P. D. 1992. The chemical ecology of plant-herbivore interactions in marine vs. terrestrial communities, p. 271–413, in (eds. G. A. Rosenthal and M. Berenbaum) Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites, Volume II Evolutionary and Ecological Processes & Academic Press, New York.
Heck, K. L. and Valentine, J. F. 1995. Sea urchin herbivory: evidence for long-lasting effects in subtropical seagrass meadows. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 189:205–217.
Herrmann, K. 1995. The shikimate pathway as an entry into aromatic secondary metabolism. Plant Physiol. 107:7–12.
Jones, C. G. and Hartley, S. E. 1999. A protein competition model of phenolic allocation. Oikos 86:27–44.
Kathiresan, K. 1992. Foliovory in Pichavaram mangroves. Environ. Ecol. 10:988–989.
Kimura, M. and Wada, H. 1989. Tannins in mangrove tree roots and their role in the root environment. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 35:101–108. 1932 ARNOLD AND TARGETT
Kubek, D. J. and Shuler, M. L. 1980. The effect of variations in carbon and nitrogen concentrations on phenolics formation in plant cell suspension cultures. J. Nat. Prod. 43:87–96.
Kupper, F. C., Kloareg, B., Guern, J., and Potin, P. 2001. Oligoguluronates elicit an oxidative burst in the brown algal kelp Laminaria digitata. Plant Physiol. 125:278–291.
Lavola, A., Julhunen–tiito, R., De La Rosa, T. M., Lehto, T., and Aphalo, P. J. 2000. Allocation of carbon to growth and secondary metabolites in brich seedlings under UV-B radiation and CO2 exposure. Physiol. Plant. 109:260–267.
Legaz, M. E., Vicente, C., and Filho, X. L. 1985. The occurrence of lichen phenolics and their catabolites in a free-living alga, Lobophora variegata (Phaeophyta). Cryptogamie: Algol. 6:265–272.
Liu, L. and McClure, J.W. 1995. Effects of UV-B on activities of enzymes of secondary metabolism in barley primary leaves. Physiol. Plant. 93:734–739.
Macia, S. 2000. The effects of sea urchin grazing and drift algal blooms on a subtropical seagrass bed community. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 246:53–67.
McMillian, C. Zapata, O., and Escobar, L. 1980. Sulphated phenolic compounds in seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 8:267–278.
Micheli, F. 1993. Feeding ecology of mangrove crabs in northeastern Australia: Mangrove litter consumption by Sesarma messa and Sesarma smithii. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 171:165–186.
Muday, G. K. and Herrmann, K.M. 1992. Wounding induces one of two isoenzymes of 3-deoxy-Darabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase in Solanum tuberosum L. Plant Physiol. 98:496–500.
Muelstein, L.K. 1988. Labyrinthula sp., a marine slime mold producing symptoms of wasting disease in eelgrass, Zostera marina. Mar. Biol. 99:465–472.
Muehlstein, L. L. 1992. The host-pathogen interaction in the wasting disease of eelgrass, Zostera marina. Can. J. Bot. 70:2081–2088.
Nicholson, R. L. and Hammerschmidt, R. 1992. Phenolic compounds and their role in disease resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 30:369–389.
Packter, N. M. 1980. Characterization of subspecies from a fungal fatty acid synthetase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 615:497–508.
Pavia, H. and Brock, E. 2000. Extrinsic factors influencing phlorotannin production in the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 193:285–294.
Pavia, H. and Toth, G. 2000. Inducible chemical resistance to herbivory in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Ecology 81:3212–3225.
Pavia, H. Cervin, G., Lindgren, A., and Aberg, P. 1997. Effects of UV-B radiation and simulated herbivory on phlorotannins in the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 157:139–146.
Pennings, S. C., Siska, E. L., and Bertness, M. D. 2001. Latitudinal differences in plant palatability in Atlantic coast salt marshes. Ecology 82:1344–1359.
Quackenbush, R. C., Bunn, D., and Lingren, W. 1986. HPLC determination of phenolic acids in the water-soluble extract of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass). Aquat. Bot. 24: 83–89.
Ragan, M. A. and Craigie, J. S. 1976. Physodes and the phenolic compounds of brown algae. Isolation and characterization of phloroglucinol polymers from Fucus vesiculosus (L.). Can. J. Biochem. 54:66–73.
Ragan, M. A. and Glombitza, K.-W. 1986. Phlorotannins, brown algal polyphenols. Prog. Phycol. Res. 4:130–241.
Ravn, H. C., Andary, C., Kovacs, G., and Molgaard, P. 1989. Caffeic acid esters as in vitro inhibitors of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 17:175–184.
Ravn, H., Pedersen, M. F., Borum, J, Andary, C., Anthoni, U., Christpherson, C., and Nielsen, P. H. 1994. Seasonal variation and distribution of two phenolics compounds, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, in leaves and roots-rhizomes of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Ophelia 40:51–61.
Reynolds, K. A. 1998. Combinational biosynthesis: Lesson learned from nature. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 95:12744–12746.
Richardson, C. J., Ferrell, G. M., and Vaithiyanathan, P. 1999. Nutrient effects on stand structure, resorption efficiency, and secondary compounds in Everglades sawgrass. Ecology 80:2182–2192.
Schoenwaelder, M. E. A. and Clayton, M. N. 1999. The presence of phenolic compounds in isolated cell walls of brown algae. Phycologia 38:161–166.
Seigler, D. S. 1998. Plant Secondary Metabolism. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Norwell Massachusetts.
Short, F. T., Mathieson, A. C., and Nelson, J. I. 1986. Reoccurrence of the eelgrass wasting disease at the border of New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 29:89–92.
Singh, B. K., Siehl, D., and Connelly, J. A. 1991. Shikimate pathway: why does it mean so much to so many? Oxford Surveys Plant Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:143–185.
Steinberg, P. D. and Van Altena, I. 1992. Tolerance of marine invertebrate herbivores to brown algal phlorotannins in temperate Australasia. Ecol. Monogr. 62:189–222.
Steinke, T. D., Rajh, A., and Holland, A. J. 1993. The feeding behavior of the red mangrove crab Sesarma meinerti De Man and its effect on the degradation of mangrove leaf litter. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 13:151–160.
Stern, J. L., Hagerman, A. E., Steinber, P. D., and Mason, P. K. 1996. Phlorotannin–protein interactions. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:1877–1899.
Targett, N. M. and Arnold, T. M. 1998. Predicting the effects of brown algal phlorotannins on marine herbivores in tropical and temperate oceans. J. Phycol. 34:195–205.
Targett, N. M., Coen, L. D., Boettcher, A. A., and Tanner, C.E. 1992. Biogeographic comparisons of marine algal polyphenolics: evidence against a lattitudinal trend. Oecologia 89:464–470.
Targett, N. M., Boettcher, A. A., Targett, T. E., and Vrolijk, N. H. 1995. Tropical marine herbivore assimilation of phenolic-rich plants. Oecologia 103:170–179.
Thayer, G. W., Bjorndal, K. A., Ogden, J. C., Williams, S. L., and Zieman, J. C. 1984. Role of larger herbivores in seagrass communities. Estuaries 7:351–376.
Toth, G. B. and Pavia, H. 2000. Water-borne cues induce chemical defense in marine algal (Ascophyllum nodosum). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 97:14418–14420.
Valentine, J. F. and Heck, K. L. 1991. The role of sea urchin grazing in regulating subtropical seagrass meadows: Evidence from field manipulations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 154:215–230.
Valentine, J. F. and Heck, K. L. 2001. The role of leaf nitrogen content in determining turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) grazing by a generalized herbivore in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 258:65–86.
Van Alstyne, K. L. 1988. Grazing increases polyphenolic defenses in the intertidal brown alga Fucus distichus. Ecology 69:655–663.
Van Alstyne, K. L. 1989. Adventitious branching as a herbivore-induced defense in the intertidal brown alga Fucus distichus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 56:169–176.
Van Alstyne, K. L. 1990. Effects of wounding by the herbivorous snails Littorina sitkana and L. scutlata (Mollusca) on the growth and reproduction of the intertidal alga Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta). J. Phycol. 26:412–416.
Van Alstyne, K. L., Dethier, M. N., and Duggins, D. O. 2001. Spatial patterns in macroalgal chemical defenses, pp. 301–324 in J. B. McClintock and B. J. Baker (eds). Marine Chemical Ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Vergeer, L. H. T. and Denhartog, C. 1994. Omnipresence of Labyrinthulaceae in seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 45:1–20.
Vergeer, L. H. T. and Develi, A. 1997. Phenolic acids in healthy and infected leaves Zostera marina and their growth-limiting properties towards Labyrinthula zosterae. Aquat. Bot. 58:65–72. 1934 ARNOLD AND TARGETT
Vergeer, L. H. T., Aarts, T. L., and De Groot. J. D. 1995. The wasting disease and the effects of abiotic factors (light intensity, temperature, salinity) and infection with Labyrinthula zosterae on the phenolic content of Zostera marina shoots. Aquat. Bot. 52:35–44.
Wecker, M., Strong, D., and Grevstad, F. 2000. Integrating biological control in the integrated pest management program for Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay J. Shellfish Res. 19:634.
Wilson, J. O., Buchsbaum, R., Valiela, I., and Swain, T. 1986. Decomposition in salt marsh ecosystems: phenolic dynamics during decay of litter of Spartina alterniflora. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 29:177–187.
Zieman, J. C. and Zieman, R. T. 1989. Ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile. Biological Report US Fish and Wildlife Service, 168 pp.
Zieman, J. C., Fourqurean, J. W., and Frankovich, T. A. 1999. Seagrass Die-off in Florida Bay: Long-term Trends in Abundance and Growth of Turtle Grass, Thalassia testudinum. Estuaries 22:460–470.