, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 695-701

Cytokines in Brain Ischemia—The Role of TNFα

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


1. The role of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in the progression of ischemic brain injury is a new and exciting era of research. Evidence in support for a role for TNFα in this respect is emerging as evidence on de novo upregulation of TNFα following ischemia is now well established.

2. TNFα administered directly to the brain parenchyma elicits local microvascular injury in the form of pericapillary edema and leukocyte adhesion to cerebral capillaries.

3. TNFα administered into the cerebroventricular space prior to ischemia augment the extent of tissue damage and neurological deficits.

4. Specific and potent inhibitors of TNFα synthesis or TNFα receptors must be developed and tried to prove firmly a role for TNFα in ischemic brain injury.