, Volume 108, Issue 7, pp 611-624

Toxigenic Fusarium species and Mycotoxins Associated with Head Blight in Small-Grain Cereals in Europe

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The Fusarium species predominantly found associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other small-grain cereals all over Europe are F. graminearum, F. avenaceum and F. culmorum. Among the less frequently encountered species are several others which are less pathogenic or opportunistic, but also toxigenic. These include F. poae, F. cerealis F. equiseti F. sporotrichioides F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, F. acuminatum F. subglutinans F. solani F. oxysporum F. verticillioides F. semitectum and F. proliferatum. The species profile of FHB is due to several factors, primarily climatic conditions, particularly rain and the temperature at flowering stage, but also agronomic factors, such as soil cultivation, nitrogen fertilization, fungicides, crop rotation, and host genotype. The most frequently encountered Fusarium mycotoxins in FHB in Europe has proved to be deoxynivalenol and zearalenone produced by F. graminearum and F. culmorum with the former more common in southern (warmer) and the latter in northern (colder) European areas. Nivalenol was usually found associated with deoxynivalenol and its derivatives (mono-acetyldeoxynivalenols), together with fusarenone-X, formed by F. graminearum F. cerealis F. culmorum and, in northern areas, by F. poae. Moreover, from central to northern European countries, moniliformin has been consistently reported, as a consequence of the widespread distribution of F. avenaceum whereas the occurrence of T-2 toxin derivatives, such as T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin, and diacetoxyscirpenol have been recorded in conjunction with sporadic epidemics of F. sporotrichioides and F. poae. Finally, beauvericin and various enniatins have recently been found in Finnish wheat colonized by F.avenaceum and F. poae.