Rank Differences in Ecological Behavior: A Comparative Study of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and Vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops)
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
One of the central dichotomies in primate behavior is between species in which there are relationships among females that include stable dominance relationships, and those in which the relationships include weak or unstable dominance relationships. This dichotomy has been attributed to differences in food resources, with stable dominance hierarchies occurring in species that feed on usurpable foods. We compared rank-related differences in nonagonistic behaviors considered to be tightly linked to ecology in broadly sympatric vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas), two closely related cercopithecines that are exemplars of this dichotomy, with the expectation that vervets would exhibit stronger rank differences than patas monkeys in these behaviors. Overall, rank explained more than twice as much variation among vervets as among patas monkeys in ranging behavior, activity budgets, and diet. Vervets did not, however, exhibit stronger rank differences when they used Acacia xanthophloea habitat, in which foods are more usurpable, compared to Acacia drepanolobium habitat, in which foods are less usurpable. In Acacia drepanolobium habitat, to which patas are restricted, higher-ranking vervets converged in behavior with patas monkeys to a greater extent than lower-ranking vervets, suggesting that social constraints interfere with the foraging efficiency of lower-ranking vervets even in habitats in which there are fewer opportunities to usurp foods.
- Barton, R. A., and Whiten, A. (1993). Feeding competition among female olive baboons, Papio anubis. Anim. Behav. 46: 777-789.
- Boccia, M. L., Laudenslager, M., and Reite, M. (1988). Food distribution, dominance, and aggressive behaviors in bonnet macaques. Amer. J. Primalol. 16: 123-130.
- Borries, C, Sommer, V., and Srivastava, A. (1991). Dominance, age, and reproductive success in free-ranging female Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int. J. Primatol. 12: 231-257.
- Borries, C., Sommer, V, and Srivastava, A. (1994). Weaving a tight social net: Allogrooming in freeranging female langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int. J. Primatol. 15: 421-443.
- Brennan, J., and Anderson, J. R. (1988). Varying responses to feeding competition in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Primates 29: 353-360.
- Cheney, D. L. (1983). Extrafamilial alliances among vervet monkeys. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships:An Integrated Approach, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 278-286.
- Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M, and Lee, P. C. (1981). Behavioral correlates of non-random mortality among free-ranging female vervet monkeys. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 9: 153-161.
- Chism, J., and Wood, C. S. (1994). Diet and feeding behavior of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. (Suppl. 18): 67.
- Coe, M., and Beentje, H. (1991). A Field Guide to the Acacias of Kenya, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Cords, M. The agonistic and affiliative relationships of adult females in a blue monkey group. In Jolly, C., and Whitehead, P. (eds.), Old World Monkeys, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, in press.
- Disotell, T. R. (1996). The phylogeny of Old World monkeys. Evol. Anthropol. 5: 18-24.
- Goldman, E. N., and Loy, J. (1997). Longitudinal study of dominance relations among captive patas monkeys. Amer. J. Primatol. 42: 41-51.
- Isbell, L. A. (1991). Contest and scramble competition: Patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates. Behav. Ecol. 2: 143-155.
- Isbell, L. A. (1998). Diet for a small primate: Insectivory and gummivory in the (large) patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus). Amer. J. Primatol. 45: 381-398.
- Isbell, L. A., and Pruetz, J. D. (1998). Differences between vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Eyrthrocebus patas) in agonistic interactions between adult females. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 837-855.
- Isbell, L. A., Pruetz, J. D., and Young, T. P. (1998a). Movements of adult female vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) as estimators of food resource size, density, and distribution. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 123-133.
- Isbell, L. A., Pruetz, J. D., Lewis, M., and Young, T. P. (1998b). Locomotor differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Eyrthrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops): Implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in Homo. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105: 199-207.
- Isbell, L. A., and Young, T. P. (1993). Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys, and their implications for group living. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32: 377-385.
- Jacobus, S., and Loy, J. (1981). The grimace and gecker: A submissive display among patas monkeys. Primates 22: 393-398.
- Janson, C. (1985). Aggressive competition and individual food consumption in wild brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18: 125-138.
- Janson, C. H. (1990). Ecological consequences of individual spatial choice in foraging groups of brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Anim. Behav. 40: 922-934.
- Kaplan, J. R., and Zucker, E. L. (1980). Social organization in a group of free-ranging patas monkeys. Folia Primatol. 34: 331-342.
- Koenig, A., Beise, J., Chalise, M. K., and Ganzhorn, J. U. (1998). When females should contest for food-testing hypotheses about resource density, distribution, size, and quality with Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 225-237.
- Lee, P. C. (1983). Context-specific unpredictability in dominance interactions. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships:An Integrated Approach, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 35-44.
- Loy, J., and Harnois, M. (1988). An assessment of dominance and kinship among patas monkeys. Primates 29: 331-342.
- Nakagawa, N. (1992). Distribution of affiliative behaviors among adult females within a group of wild patas monkeys in a nonmating, nonbirth season. Int. J. Primatol. 13: 73-96.
- Pusey, A., and Packer, C. (1997). The ecology of relationships. In Krebs, J. R., and N. B. Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, 4th ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 254-283.
- Rowell, T. (1967). A quantitative comparison of the behaviour of a wild and a caged baboon group. Anim. Behav. 15: 499-509.
- Rowell, T, Wilson, C., and Cords, M. (1991). Reciprocity and partner preference in grooming of female blue monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 12: 319-336.
- Seyfarth, R. M. (1980). The distribution of grooming and related behaviours among adult female vervet monkeys. Anim. Behav. 28: 798-813.
- Shopland, J. (1987). Food quality, spatial deployment and the intensity of feeding interferences in yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21: 149-156.
- Southwick, C. H. (1967). An experimental study of intragroup agonistic behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Behaviour 28: 182-209.
- Sterck, E. M. H., and Steenbeek, R. (1997). Female dominance relationships and food competition in the sympatric Thomas langur and long-tailed macaque. Behaviour 134: 749-774.
- Struhsaker, T. T. (1975). The Red Colobus Monkey, University of Chicago Press, Chicago
- van Schaik, C. P. (1989). The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In Standen, V., and Foley, R. A. (eds.), Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and other Mammals, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 195-218.
- Watts, D. (1994). Agonistic relationships between female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla berengei). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 34: 347-358.
- Whitten, P. L. (1983). Diet and dominance among female vervet monkeys (Cercopilhecus aethiops). Amer. J. Primatol. 5: 139-159.
- Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75: 262-300.
- Wrangham, R. W. (1981). Drinking competition in vervet monkeys. Anim. Behav. 29: 904-910.
- Wrangham, R. W., and Waterman, P. G. (1981). Feeding behaviour of vervet monkeys on Acacia tortilis and Acacia xanthophloea: With special reference to reproductive strategies and tannin production. J.Anim. Ecol. 50: 715-739.
- Young, T. P., Stubblefield, C. H., and Isbell, L. A. (1997). Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: Species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109: 98-107.
- Young, T. P., Kinyua, D., Okello, B. N., and Palmer, T. M. (1998). KLEE: A long-term multi-species herbivore exclusion experiment in Laikipia, Kenya. Afr. J. Range Forage Sci. 14: 94-102.
- Rank Differences in Ecological Behavior: A Comparative Study of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and Vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops)
International Journal of Primatology
Volume 20, Issue 2 , pp 257-272
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- behavioral ecology
- Acacia drepanolobium
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, California
- 2. Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
- 3. Department of Environmental Horticulture, University of California, Davis, California