Utilization of Methane and Carbon Dioxide by Symbiotrophic Bacteria in Gills of Mytilidae (Bathymodiolus) from the Rainbow and Logachev Hydrothermal Fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
- Cite this article as:
- Pimenov, N.V., Kalyuzhnaya, M.G., Khmelenina, V.N. et al. Microbiology (2002) 71: 587. doi:10.1023/A:1020519105618
- 116 Downloads
Bivalve mollusks Bathymodiolus asoricus and Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis collected from the Rainbow and Logachev hydrothermal fields during dives of the Mir 1 and Mir 2 deep-sea manned submersibles were studied. Rates of methane oxidation and carbon dioxide assimilation in mussel gill tissue were determined by radiolabel analysis. During oxidation of 14CH4, radiocarbon was detected in significant quantities not only in carbon dioxide but also in dissolved organic matter, most notably 14C-formate and 14C-acetate, occurring in a 2 : 1 ratio. Activities of hexulose-phosphate synthase, phosphoribulokinase, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase were shown in the soluble fraction of gill tissue cells. At the same time, no activity of hydroxypyruvate reductase—the key enzyme of the serine pathway of C1-assimilation—was detected. The results of PCR amplification using genetic probes for membrane-bound methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and methanol dehydrogenase (mxaF) attest to the presence of the genes of these enzymes in the total DNA extracted from gill samples. However, no appropriate PCR responses were obtained with the mmoX primer system, which is a marker for soluble methane monooxygenase. All samples studied showed amplification with primers for the genera Methylobacter and Methylosphaera. At the same time, no genes specific to the genera Methylomonas, Methylococcus, Methylomicrobium, or MethylosinusandMethylocystis were detected. Electron microscopic examinations revealed the presence of two groups of endosymbiotic bacteria in the mussel gill tissue. The first group was represented by large cells possessing a complex system of cytoplasmic membranes, typical of methanotrophs of morphotype I. The other type of endosymbionts, having much smaller cells and lacking intracellular membrane structures, is likely to be constituted by sulfur bacteria.