Soil Lead and Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Syracuse, NY, USA
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A geo-referenced data set of 12 228 first-time blood lead screening values for Syracuse, NY, children was established for the 4-year period 1992–1996. Soil lead values were measured in a 600 m by 600 m tessellation grid covering the city. The two data sets were merged for evaluation of relationships between them. Strong seasonal variation in blood lead levels suggests the importance of contaminated soils as an exposure source. When the data were aggregated at a large geographic scale (∼3 km2), a logarithmic model showed an R2 of > 0.65 for the regression of geometric mean blood lead on median soil lead values. Results showed a striking similarity to those obtained by Mielke et al. (1999) for a study in New Orleans, LA, USA.
- Adgate, J.L., Willis, R.D., Buckley, T.J., Chow, J.C., Watson, J.G., Rhoads, G.G. and Lioy, P.J.: 1998, Chemical mass balance source apportionment of lead in house dust, Environmental Science and Technology 32(1), 108-114.
- Billick, I.S.: 1982, Prediction of Pediatric BBLs from Gasoline Consumption, NTIS PB83-124321, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.
- Blatt, S.D. and Weinberger, H.L.: 1993, Prevalence of lead exposure in a clinic using 1991 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, American Journal of Diseases of Children 147, 761-763.
- Burgoon, D.A., Rust, S.W. and Hogan, K.A.: 1995, Relationships Among Lead Levels in Blood, Dust and Soil, in: Breen, J.J. and Stroup, C.R. (eds), Lead Poisoning: Exposure Abatement Regulation, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 255-264.
- Cook, M., Chappell, W.R., Hoffman, R.E. and Magnione, E.J.: 1993, Assessment of blood lead levels in children living in a historic mining and smelting community, American Journal of Epidemiology 137, 447-455.
- Culbard, E.B., Thornton, I., Watt, J., Wheatley, M., Moorcroft, S. and Thompson, M.: 1988, Metal contamination in British urban dusts and soils, Journal of Environmental Quality 17, 226-234.
- Davies, B., Elwood, P.C., Gallagher, J. and Ginnever, R.C.: 1985, The relationship between heavy metals in garden soils and house dusts in an old mining area of North Wales, Great Britain, Environmental Pollution B9, 255-266.
- Davies, D.J.A., Thornton, I., Watt, J.M., Culbard, E.B., Harvey, P.G., Delves, H.T., Sherlock, J.C., Smart, G.A., Thomas, J.F.A. and Quinn, M.J.: 1990, Lead intake and blood lead in two-year-old U.K. urban children, Science of the Total Environment 90, 13-29.
- Duggan, M.J. and Inskip, M.J.: 1985, Childhood exposure to lead in surface dust and soil: a community health problem, Public Health Review 13, 1-54.
- EPA: 1995, Seasonal Rhythms of Blood Lead Levels: Boston, 1979-1983. Final Report, EPA 747-R94-003, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
- EPA: 1996, Seasonal Trends in Blood Lead Levels in Milwaukee, EPA 747-R95-010, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
- Griffith, D.A., Doyle, P.G., Wheeler, D.C. and Johnson, D.L.: 1998, A tale of two swaths: urban childhood blood-lead levels across Syracuse, New York, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88, 640-665.
- Hammond, P.B., Bornschein, R.L., Succop, P.A. and Clark, C.S.: 1983, Profiles of Lead Burdens in Early Childhood. A Longitudinal Study in a High Risk Environment, Int. Conf. Heavy Metals Environ., Heidelberg, Vol. 1, pp. 262-268.
- Hunt, A., Johnson, D.L. and Thornton, I.: 1993, Apportioning the sources of lead in house dusts in the London Borough of Richmond, Science of the Total Environment 138, 183-206.
- Hwang, Y.-H. and Wang, J.-D.: 1990, Temporal fluctuations of the lead level in the cord blood of neonates in Taipei, Archives of Environmental Health 45, 42-45.
- Johnson, D.L., McDade, K. and Griffith, D.: 1996a, Seasonal variation in pediatric blood lead levels in Syracuse, NY, USA, Environmental and Geochemical Health 18, 81-88.
- Johnson, D.L., Bretsch, J., Thomas, B., Hunt, A., Urquhart, G., Burdick, M. and Klineberg, S.: 1996b, Seasonal Variation and Geographic Clustering of Blood Lead Values in Syracuse, NY, Proc. Am. Public Health Association Annual Meeting, October 1996, New York, NY.
- Lanphear, B.P. and Roghmann, K.J.: 1997, Pathways of lead exposure in urban children, Environmental Research 74, 67-73.
- Lanphear, B.P., et al.: 1994, The Relation of Lead-contaminated House Dust and Blood Lead Levels Among Urban Children, Final Report to the National Center for Lead-Safe Housing and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, April 20, 1994.
- Lanphear, B.P., Byrd, R.S., Auinger, P. and Schaffer, S.J.: 1998, Community characteristics associated with elevated blood lead levels in children, Pediatrics 101, 264-271.
- Lewin, M.D., Sarasua, S. and Jones, P.A.: 1999, A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children' blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: a study at four superfund sites, Environmental Research 81, 52-61.
- Marrero, O., Meigs, J.W., Stark, A.D. and Quah, R.F.: 1983, Seasonal patterns in children' blood lead levels: a second peak in late winter, Connecticut Medicine 47, 1-5.
- Melman, S.T., Nimeh, J.W. and Anbar, R.D.: 1998, Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in an inner-city pediatric clinic population, Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 655-658.
- Mielke, H.W.: 1993, Lead dust contaminated U.S.A. communities: a comparison of Louisiana and Minnesota, Applied Geochemistry (Suppl. 2), 257-261.
- Mielke, H.W. and Reagan, P.L.: 1998, Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure, Environmental Health Perspectives 106(Suppl. 1), 217-229.
- Mielke, H.W., Dugas, D., Mielke Jr., P.W., Smith, K.S., Smith, S.L. and Gonzales, C.R.: 1997, Associations between soil lead and childhood blood lead in urban New Orleans, and rural Lafourche Parish of Louisiana, Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 950-954.
- Mielke, H.W., Gonzales, C.R., Smith, M.K. and Mielke, P.W.: 1999, The urban environment and children' health: soils as an integrator of lead, zinc, and cadmium in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, Environmental Research 81, 117-129.
- Pirkle, J.L., Brody, D.J., Gunter, E.W., Kramer, R.A., Paschal, D.C., Flegal, K.M. and Matte, T.D.: 1994, The decline in blood lead levels in the United States, the national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES), JAMA 272, 284-291.
- Pirkle, J.L., Kaufmann, R.B., Brody, D.J., Hickman, T., Gunter, E.W. and Paschal, D.C.: 1998, Exposure of the U.S. population to lead 1991-1994, Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 745-750.
- Rabinowitz, M.B. and Needleman, H.L.: 1982, Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood, Science 216, 1429-1431.
- Rabinowitz, M.B., Needleman, H.L., Burley, M., Finch, H. and Rees, J.: 1984, Lead in umbilical blood, indoor air, tap water, and gasoline in Boston, Archives of Environmental Health 39, 299-301.
- Shinn, N.J., Bing-Canar, J., Cailas, M., Peneff, N. and Binns, H.J.: 2000, Determination of spatial continuity of soil lead levels in an urban residential neighborhood, Environmental Research 82, 46-52.
- Stark, A.D., Quah, R.F., Meigs, J.W. and DeLouise, E.R.: 1982, The relationship of environmental lead to blood-lead levels in children, Environmental Research 27, 372-383.
- Sterling, D.A., Johnson, D.L., Murgueytio, A.M. and Evans, R.G.: 1998, Source contribution of lead in house dust from a lead mining waste superfund site, Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 8(3), 359-373.
- Thornton, I., Culbard, E.B., Moorcroft, S., Wheatley, M., Thompson, M. and Thomas, J.F.A.: 1985, Metals in urban dusts and soils, Environmental Technology Letters 6, 137-144.
- Thornton, I., Watt, J.M., Davies, D.J.A., Cotter-Howells, J. and Johnson, D.L.: 1994, Lead contamination of UK dusts and soils and implications for childhood exposure: an overview of the work of the Environmental Geochemistry Research Group, Imperial College, London, England, 1981-1992, Environmental and Geochemical Health 16, 113-122.
- Tristán, E., Demetriades, A., Ramsey, M.H., Rosenbaum, M.S., Stavrakis, P., Thornton, I., Vassiliades, E. and Vergou, K.: 2000, Spatially resolved hazard and exposure assessments: an example of lead in soil at Lavrion, Greece, Environmental Research 82, 33-45.
- Walter, S.D.: 1991a, The ecologic method in the study of environmental health. I. Overview of the method, Environmental Health Perspectives 94, 61-65.
- Walter, S.D.: 1991b, The ecologic method in the study of environmental health. II. Methodologic issues and feasibility, Environmental Health Perspectives 94, 67-73.
- Wood, E.F., Sivapalan, M. and Beven, K.: 1990, Similarity and scale in catchment storm response, Review of Geophysics 28, 1-18.
- Yiin, L.-M., Rhoads, G.G. and Lioy, P.J.: 2000, Seasonal influences on childhood lead exposure, Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 177-182.
- Soil Lead and Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Syracuse, NY, USA
Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Volume 24, Issue 4 , pp 375-385
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- blood lead
- data aggregation
- geographic distribution
- regression models
- soil lead
- soil size fractions
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Faculty of Chemistry, SUNY ESF, 1 Forestry Dr., Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA
- 2. Health and the Environment Program, The National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 1707 H Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006-3915, USA