Article

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 649-663

First online:

Recent Development in Mammalian Sialidase Molecular Biology

  • Eugenio MontiAffiliated withDepartment of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Brescia
  • , Augusto PretiAffiliated withDepartment of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Brescia
  • , Bruno VenerandoAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry and Medical Biochemistry, L.I.T.A.
  • , Giuseppe BorsaniAffiliated withDepartment of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Brescia

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

This review summarizes the recent research development on mammalian sialidase molecular cloning. Sialic acid–containing compounds are involved in several physiological processes, and sialidases, as glycohydrolytic enzymes that remove sialic acid residues, play a pivotal role as well. Sialidases hydrolyze the nonreducing, terminal sialic acid linkage in various natural substrates, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, gangliosides, and polysaccharides. Mammalian sialidases are present in several tissues/organs and cells with a typical subcellular distribution: they are the lysosomal, the cytosolic, and the plasma membrane–associated sialidases. Starting in 1993, 12 different mammalian sialidases have been cloned and sequenced. A comparison of their amino acid sequences revealed the presence of highly conserved regions. These conserved regions are shared with viral and microbial sialidases that have been characterized at three-dimensional structural level, allowing us to perform the molecular modeling of the mammalian proteins and suggesting a monophyletic origin of the sialidase enzymes. Overall, the availability of the cDNA species encoding mammalian sialidases is an important step leading toward a comprehensive picture of the relationships between the structure and biological function of these enzymes.

Mammalian sialidase molecular cloning gene structure and expression molecular properties transgenic expression