, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 497-506

A New Method for Estimating Dermal Absorption from Chemical Exposure. 1. General Approach

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Abstract

To evaluate systemic chemical exposure from dermal absorption, one must know the mass of chemical absorbed including the portion that has entered the skin but not yet entered the body's interior system. Algebraic equations are presented for estimating dermal absorption including the effects of exposure time and chemical nature of the compound, in particular lipophilicity and molecular weight. The proposed equations account for larger absorption rates during the initial exposure period as well as the hydrophilic barrier which the viable epidermis presents to lipophilic chemicals. These algebraic expressions are shown to represent adequately the exact solution of the unsteady-state diffusion equations for a two-membrane composite. Finally, procedures are proposed for estimating a priori the required physicochemical data when experimental values are not available. Specifically, the Potts and Guy permeability correlation is split into parts separately representing stratum corneum partitioning and diffusivity.