Trends in Gender Differences in Academic Achievement from 1960 to 1994: An Analysis of Differences in Mean, Variance, and Extreme Scores
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Gender differences in academic achievement have been studied extensively. While it is generally agreed that females have a slight advantage on average in verbal abilities and males have a slight advantage on average in mathematics, it is unclear whether these differences have changed over time. In this paper evidence from seven surveys representative of the United States twelth grade student population and the National Assessment of Educational Progress(NAEP) long term trend data is brought to bear on the magnitude of gender differences in achievement, the level of agreement among different indices of difference, and the stability of these differences over time. These data provide the unique opportunity to not only empirically estimate mean differences, differences in variance, and differences in extreme scores, but also to estimate change over time in all three indices using both the same and different tests over time. Results show that gender differences in mean and variance are small, while differences in extreme scores are often substantial. None of these differences have changed significantly since 1960, with the possible exception of mean differences in mathematics and science. Each of the datasets reflects the racial composition of the national population when properly weighted (i.e. White = 70%, Black = 15%,Hispanic = 10%, Other = 5%).
- Becker, B. J., & Hedges, L. V. (1984). Meta-analysis of cognitive gender differences: A comment on an analysis by Rosenthal and Rubin. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 583–587.
- Benbow, C. P. (1988). Sex differences in mathematical-reasoning ability in intellectually talented preadolescents: Their nature, effects, and possible causes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 169–232.
- Benbow, C. P. (1992). Academic achievement in mathematics and science of students between ages 13 and 23: Are there differences among students in the top one percent of mathematical ability? Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 51–61.
- Benbow, C. P., & Stanley, J. C. (1980). Sex differences in mathematical ability: Fact or artifact? Science, 210, 1262–1264.
- Benbow, C. P., & Stanley, J. C. (1983). Sex differences in mathematical-reasoning ability: More facts. Science, 222, 1029–1031.
- Bennett, G. K., Seashore, H. G., & Wesman, A. G. (1982). Differential aptitude tests manual (5th ed.). New York: The Psychological Corporation.
- Blau, F. D., & Ferber, M. A. (1987a). Discrimination: Empirical evidence from the United States. American Economic Review, 77, 316–320.
- Blau, F. D., & Ferber, M. A. (1987b). The economics of men, women, and work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Bock, D. A., & Moore, E. (1986). Advantage and Disadvantage: A Profile of American Youth. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Cain, G. G. (1986). The economic analysis of labor market discrimination: A survey. In O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
- Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Academic Press.
- Feingold, A. (1988). Cognitive gender differences are disappearing. American Pyschologist, 43, 95–103.
- Feingold, A. (1992a). Sex differences in variability in intellectual abilities: A new look at an old controversy, Review of Educational Research, 62, 61–84.
- Feingold, A. (1992b). The greater male variability controversy: Science versus politics, Review of Educational Research, 62, 89–90.
- Feingold, A. (1993). Cognitive gender differences: A developmental perspective, Sex Roles, 29, 91–112.
- Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in variability in intellectual abilities: A cross-cultural perspective. Sex Roles, 30, 81–91.
- Feingold, A. (1995). The additive effects of differences in central tendency and variability are important in comparisons between groups. American Psychologist, 50, 5–13.
- Feingold, A. (1996). Cognitive gender differences: Where are they and why are they there? Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 25–32.
- Flanagan, J. C., Dailey, J. T., Shaycroft, M. F., Gorham, W. A., Orr, D. B., & Goldberg, I. (1962). Design for a study of American youth. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
- Friedman, L. (1989). Mathematics and the gender gap: A meta-analysis of recent studies on sex differences in mathematical tasks. Review of Educational Research, 59, 185–213.
- Halpern, D. F. (1996). A process-oriented model of cognitive sex differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 3–24.
- Hedges, L. V. (1992). Meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Statistics, 17, 279–296.
- Hedges, L. V., & Becker, B. J. (1986). Statistical methods in the meta-analysis of research on gender differences. In J. Hyde & M. C. Linn (Eds.), The psychology of gender: Advances through meta-analysis. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
- Hedges, L. V., & Friedman, L. (1993a). Gender differences in variability in intellectual abilities: A reanalysis of Feingold's results, Review of Educational Research, 63, 94–105.
- Hedges, L. V., & Friedman, L. (1993b). Computing gender difference effects in tails of distributions: The consequences of differences in tail size, effect size, and variance ratio, Review of Educational Research, 63, 110–112.
- Hedges, L. V., & Nowell, A. (1995). Differences in mental test scores, variability, and numbers of high-scoring individuals. Science, 269, 41–45.
- Humphreys, L. G. (1988). Sex differences in variability may be more important than sex differences in mean. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 195–196.
- Hyde, J. S. (1981). How large are cognitive gender differences? A meta-analysis using omega-squared and d. American Psychologist, 36, 892–901.
- Hyde, J. S., Fennema, E., & Lamon, S. J. (1990). Gender differences in mathematics performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 139–153.
- Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (1988). Gender differences in verbal ability: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 53–69.
- Lazear, E. P., & Rosen, S. (1990). Male-female wage differentials in job ladders. Journal of Labor Economics, 8, S106–S123.
- Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Marsh, H. (1989). Sex differences in the development of verbal and mathematics constructs: The High School and Beyond Study. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 191–225.
- Masters, M. S., & Sanders, B. (1993). Is the gender difference in mental rotation disappearing?. Behavior Genetics, 23, 337–341.
- Moore, E. G. J., & Smith, A. W. (1987). Sex and ethnic group differences in mathematics achievement: Results from the National Longitudinal Study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 18, 25–36.
- Mullis, I., Dossey, J. A., Foertsch, M. A., Jones, L. R., & Gentile, M. A. (1991). Trends in academic progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Noddings, N. (1992). Variability: A pernicious hypothesis, Review of Educational Research, 62, 85–88.
- Paglin, M., & Rufolo, A. M. (1990). Heterogeneous human capital, occupational choice, and male-female earnings differences. Journal of Labor Economics, 8, 123–144.
- Rock, D. A., Hilton, T. L., Pollack, J., Ekstrom, R. B., & Goertz, M. E. (1985). Psychometric Analysis of the NLS and High School and Beyond Test Batteries. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
- Rosen, S. (1981). The economics of superstars. The American Economic Review, 71, 845–858.
- Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. (1982). Further meta-analytic procedures for assessing cognitive gender differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 708–712.
- Shaycroft, M. F., Dailey, J. T., Orr, D. B., Neyman, C. A., & Sherman, S. E. (1963). Project Talent: The identification, development, and utilization of human talents: Studies of a complete age group — Age 15. Pittsburgh: PA: Project Talent Office, University of Pittsburgh.
- Stage, Frances K., & Maple, Sue A. (1996). Incompatible goals: Narratives of graduate women in the mathematics pipeline. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 23–51.
- Stumpf, H. (1995). Gender differences in performance on tests of cognitive abilities: Experimental design issues and empirical results. Learning and Individual Differences, 7, 275–288.
- Stumpf, H., & Klieme, E. (1989). Sex-related differences in spatial ability: More evidence for convergence. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 915–921.
- Stumpf, H., & Stanley, J.C. (1996). Gender-related differences on the College Board's Advanced Placement and Achievement Tests, 1982–1992. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 353–364.
- Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1995). Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: A meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables, Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250–270.
- Wise, L. L., Steel, L., & MacDonald, C. (1979). Origins and career consequences of sex differences in high school mathematics achievement. Palo Alto, CA: American Institutes for Research.
- Trends in Gender Differences in Academic Achievement from 1960 to 1994: An Analysis of Differences in Mean, Variance, and Extreme Scores
Volume 39, Issue 1-2 , pp 21-43
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors