Sex Roles

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 215–223

Perceptions of Parents Whose Work and Parenting Behaviors Deviate from Role Expectations

  • Claire Etaugh
  • Denise Folger

DOI: 10.1023/A:1018850404838

Cite this article as:
Etaugh, C. & Folger, D. Sex Roles (1998) 39: 215. doi:10.1023/A:1018850404838


Perceptions of married parents were investigatedas a function of their gender, and the employment statusof both the parent and her or his spouse following theirchild's birth. College students (91 percent White, 9 percent African American, AsianAmerican and Hispanic) evaluated a briefly describedmarried employed parent on 31 7-point bipolar scalesthat described nurturance behaviors, job performancecharacteristics and stress/overload variables. Each evaluatorrated 1 of 8 parents portrayed as either a mother or afather who, following their infant's birth, eitherworked full-time or reduced her/his work hours, and whose spouse either worked full time or reducedhis/her work hours. Full-time employment, compared topart time employment, (1) enhanced perceptions of theprofessional competence of fathers, but not mothers; and (2)lowered evaluations of nurturance forboth parents, but especially for mothers. Mothers wereperceived as under more stress than fathers.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Etaugh
  • Denise Folger

There are no affiliations available

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