Perceptions of Female and Male Managers in the 1990s: Plus ça change . . .
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Despite an increase in the number of womenmanagers, women frequently have difficulty advancing toupper levels of management. Researchers such as V . E.Schein [(1973), “The Relationship Between SexRole Stereotypes and Requisite ManagementCharacteristics,” Journal of Applied Psychology,Vol. 57, pp. 95-100; (1975) “Relationships BetweenSex Role Stereotypes and Requisite ManagementCharacteristics Among Female Managers,” Journal ofApplied Psychology, Vol. 60, pp. 340-344] and G. N.Powell and D. A. Butterfield [(1979), “The'Good Manager': Masculine orAndrogynous?" Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 22, pp. 395-403; (1989) “The'Good Manager': Did Androgyny Fare Better inthe 1980s?” Group and Organization Studies, Vol.14, pp. 216-233] have found that perceptions of womenare often incongruent with perceptions of successful managers, thegap particularly evident in male subjects [O. C.Brenner, J. Tomkiewicz, & V . E. Schein (1989);“The Relationship Between Sex Role Stereotypes andRequisite Management Characteristics Revisited,”Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 32, pp. 662-669; P.Dubno (1985) ”Attitudes Toward Women Executives:A Longitudinal Approach,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 28, pp. 235-239; M. E. Heilman,C. J. Black, R. F. Martell, & M. C. Simon (1989)”Has Anything Changed? Current Characterizationsof Men, Women, and Managers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 74, pp. 935-942; O. Massengil& N. D. Marco (1979) ”Sex-Role Stereotypes andRequisite Management Characteristics: A CurrentReplication,” Sex Roles, Vol. 5, pp. 56-576; J.Tomkiewicz & T. Adeyemi-Bellow (1995) ”ACross-Sectional Analysis of Attitudes of Nigerians andAmericans Toward Women as Managers,” Journal ofSocial Behavior and Personality, Vol. 10, pp. 189-198].This study used 702 college student subjects (morethan 90% white, 58% female) to examine the effect ofsubject sex on perceptions of a target (male manager,female manager, prototypical manager), and found thatsubject sexhas a greater effect on the perceivedcharacteristics of a successful female manager than on theperceived characteristics of a prototypical successfulmanager or a successful male manager. Male and femalesubjects generally agree about the characteristics of a prototypical manager or a male manager,but differ in how they perceive a femalemanager.
- Brenner, O. C., Tomkiewicz, J., & Schein, V. E. (1989). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics revisited. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 662-669.
- Catalyst (1996). Catalyst Census of Women Board Directors of the Fortune 500 as of March 31, 1996. New York: Catalyst.
- Dubno, P. (1985). Attitudes toward women executives: A longitudinal approach. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 235-239.
- Ezell, H. F., Odewahm, C. A., & Sherman, J. D. (1981). The effects of having been supervised by a woman on perceptions of female managerial competence. Personnel Psychology, 3, 291-299.
- Heilman, M. E., Block, C. J., Martell, R. F., & Simon, M. C. (1989). Has anything changed? Current characterizations of men, women, and managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 935-942. CrossRef
- Massengil, D., & DiMarco, N. (1979). Sex-role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics: A current replication. Sex Roles, 5, 561-576.
- Neft, N., & Levine, A. D. (1997). Where women stand: An international report on the status of women in 140 countries. New York: Random House.
- Norris, J. M., & Wylie, A. M. (1995). Gender stereotyping of the managerial role among students in Canada and the United States. Group and Organization Management, 20, 167-182.
- O'Leary, V. E., & Ickovics, J. E. (1992). Cracking the glass ceiling: Overcoming isolation and alienation. In U. Sekaran & F. R. L. Leong (Eds.), Womanpower: Managing in times of demographic turbulence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
- Powell, G. N., & Butterfield, D. A. (1979). The “good manager”: Masculine or androgynous? Academy of Management Journal, 22, 395-403.
- Powell, G. N., & Butterfield, D. A. (1989). The “good manager”: Did androgyny fare better in the 1980s? Group and Organization Studies, 14, 216-233.
- Schein, V. E. (1973). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 95-100.
- Schein, V. E. (1975). Relationships between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics among female managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 340-344.
- Schein, V. E., Mueller, R., & Jacobson, C. (1989). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics among college students. Sex Roles, 20, 103-110.
- Taylor, M. S., & Ilgen, D. R. (1981). Sex discrimination against women in initial placement decisions: A laboratory investigation. Academy of Management Journal, 24, 859-865.
- Tharenou, P., Latimer, S., & Conroy, D. (1994). How do you make it to the top? An examination of influences on women's and men's managerial advancement. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 899-931.
- Tomkiewicz, J., & Adeyemi-Bello, T. (1995). A cross-sectional analysis of attitudes of Nigerians and Americans toward women as managers. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 189-198.
- Perceptions of Female and Male Managers in the 1990s: Plus ça change . . .
Volume 38, Issue 3-4 , pp 287-300
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors