Pheromonal Influences on Sociosexual Behavior in Men
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This study tested whether synthesized human male pheromones increase the sociosexual behavior of men. Thirty-eight heterosexual men, ages 26-42, completed a 2-week baseline period and 6-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial testing a pheromone "designed to improve the romance in their lives." Each subject kept daily behavioral records for 6 sociosexual behaviors: petting/affection/kissing, formal dates, informal dates, sleeping next to a romantic partner, sexual intercourse, and self-stimulation to ejaculation (masturbation) and FAXed them each week. Significantly more pheromone than placebo users increased above baseline in sexual intercourse and sleeping with a romantic partner. There was a tendency for more pheromone than placebo users to increase above baseline in petting/affection/kissing, and informal dates, but not in self-stimulation to ejaculation or in formal dates . A significantly larger proportion of pheromone than placebo users increased in ≥2 and ≥3 of the 5 sociosexual behaviors involving a female partner. Thus, there was a significant increase in male sociosexual behaviors in which a woman's sexual interest and cooperation plays a role but not in male masturbation which involves only the man. These initial data need replication but suggest that human male pheromones affected the sexual attractiveness of men to women.
- Bartoshuk L. M. and Beauchamp G. K. (1994). Chemical senses. Ann. Rev. Psychol.45: 419–449.
- Burleson M. Gregory W. L. and Trevathan W. (1991). Heterosexual activity and cycle length variability: Effect of gynecological maturity. Physiol. Behav.50: 863–866.
- Burleson M. H. Gregory W. L. and Trevathan W. R. (1995). Heterosexual activity: Relationship with ovarian function. Psychoneuroend ocrinology20: 405–421.
- Cohn B. A. (1994). In search of human skin pheromones (a review). Arch. Dermatol.130: 1048–1051.
- Cowley J. J. and Brooksbank B. W. L. (1991). Human exposure to putative pheromones and changes in aspects of social behavior. J. Steroid Biochem.39(4B): 647–659.
- Cutler W. B. (1987). Female essence (pheromones) increases sexual behavior of young women. Poster presented at the XVIII meeting of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Chapel Hill NC.
- Cutler W. B. Garcia C. R. Huggins G. R. and Preti G. (1986). Sexual behavior and steroid levels among gynecologically mature premenopausal women. Fertil. Steril.45: 496–502.
- Cutler W. B. Garcia C. R. and Krieger A. M. (1979a). Sexual behavior frequency and menstrual cycle length in mature premenopausal women. Psychoneuroendoc rinology4: 297–309.
- Cutler W. B. Garcia C. R. and Krieger A. M. (1979b). Luteal phase defects: A possible relationship between short hyperthermic phase and sporadic sexual behavior in women. Horm. Behav.13: 214–218.
- Cutler W. B. Garcia C. R. and Krieger A. M. (1980). Sporadic sexual behavior and menstrual cycle length in women. Horm. Behav.14: 163–172.
- Cutler W. B. McCoy N. and Davidson J. M. (1983). Sexual behavior steroids and hot flashes are associated during the perimenopause. Neuroendo. L.5: 185.
- Cutler W. B. Preti G. Huggins G. R. Erickson B. and Garcia C. R. (1985). Sexual behavior frequency and biphasic ovulatory-type menstrual cycles. Physiol. Behav.34: 805–810.
- Cutler W. B. Preti G. Krieger A. Huggins G. R. Garcia C. R. and Lawley H. J. (1986). Human axillary secretions influence women's menstrual cycles: The role of donor extract from men. Horm. Behav.20: 463–473.
- Cutler W. B. and Stine R. (1988). Female essence increases heterosexual activity of women. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Fertility Society Atlanta GA.
- Filsinger E. E. Monte W. C. Braun J. J. and Linder D. E. (1984). Human (Homo sapiens) responses to the pig (Sus scrofa) sex pheromone 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one. J. Comparative Psychol.98: 219–222.
- Garcia-Velasco J. and Mondragon M. (1991). The incidence of the vomeronasal organ in 1000 human subjects and its possible clinical significance. J. Steroid Biochem.39(4B): 561–563.
- Gower D. B. (1972). 16-Unsaturate d C19 steroids: A review of their chemistry biochemistry and possible physiological role. J. Steroid Biochem.3: 45–103.
- Gower D. B. Bird S. Sharma P. and House F. R. (1985). Axillary 5a-androst-16-e n-3-one in men and women: Relationships with olfactory acuity to odorous 16-androstenes. Experientia41: 1134–1136.
- Gower D. B. and Ruparelia B. A. (1993). Olfaction in humans with special reference to odorous 16-androstenes: Their occurrence perception and possible social psychological and sexual impact. J. Endocrinol.137: 167–187.
- Gustavson A. R. Dawson M. E. and Bonett D. G. (1987). Androstenol a putative human pheromone affects human (Homo sapiens) male choice performance. J. Comp. Psychol.101: 210–212.
- Karlson P. and Luscher M. (1959). Pheromones: a new term for a class of biologically active substances. Nature183: 55–56.
- Knowlton L. (1994). Elixirs of love. Los Angeles TimesJuly 15 Section E p. 1.
- McClintock M. K. (1971). Menstrual synchrony and suppression. Nature229: 244–245.
- McCoy N. Cutler W. and Davidson J. M. (1985). Relationships among sexual behavior hot flashes and hormone levels in perimenopausal women. Arch. Sex. Behav.14: 385–394.
- Meredith M. (1991). Sensory processing in the main and accessory olfactory systems: Comparisons and contrasts. J. Steroid Biochem.39(4B): 601–614.
- Monti-Bloch L. and Grosser B. I. (1991). Effect of putative pheromones on the electrical activity of the human vomeronasal organ and olfactory epithelium. J. Steroid Biochem.39(4B): 573–582.
- Preti G. Cutler W. B. Christensen C. M. Lawley H. Huggins G. R. and Garcia C. R. (1987). Human axillary extracts: Analysis of compounds from samples which influence menstrual timing.J. Chem. Ecol.13: 717–731.
- Preti G. Cutler W. B. Garcia C. R. Huggins G. R. and Lawley H. J. (1986). Human axillary secretions influence women's menstrual cycles: The role of donor extract of females. Horm. Behav.20: 474–482.
- Russell M. J. (1976). Human olfactory communication. Nature260: 520–522.
- Singer A. G. (1991). A chemistry of mammalian pheromones. J. Steroid Biochem.39(4B): 627–632.
- SPSS. Inc. (1993). SPSS for Windows. SPSS Inc. Chicago IL.
- Takami S. Getchell M. L. Chen Y. Monti-Bloch L. Berliner D. L. Stensaas L. J. and Getchell T. V. (1993). Vomeronasal epithelial cells of the adult human express neuron-specific molecules. Neuro. Rep.4: 375–378.
- Veith J. L. Buck M. Getzlaf S. Van Dalfsen P. and Slade S. (1983). Exposure to men influences the occurrence of ovulation in women. Physiol. Behav.31: 313–315.
- Wysocki C. J. and Lepri J. J. (1991). Consequences of removing the vomeronasal organ. J. Steroid Biochem.39( 4B): 661–669.
- Pheromonal Influences on Sociosexual Behavior in Men
Archives of Sexual Behavior
Volume 27, Issue 1 , pp 1-13
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- HUMAN PHEROMONE
- SEXUAL ATTRACTIVENESS
- SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
- Industry Sectors