International Agency for Research on Cancer. Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 1, Chemical, Environmental and Experimental Data. Lyon, France: IARC, 1983; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 32.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France: IARC, 1971–96; IARCMonogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vols. 1-65.
Gerhardsson de Verdier M, Plato N, Steineck G, Peters JM. Occupational exposures and cancer of the colon and Rectum. Am J Ind Med 1992; 22: 291–303.
Gustavsson P, Evanoff B, Hogstedt C. Increased risk of esophageal cancer among workers exposed to combustion products. Arch Environ Health 1993; 48: 243–5.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco Smoking. Lyon, France: IARC, 1986; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 38.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Coal-tars and derived products. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Com-pounds, Part 4, Bitumens, Coal-tars and Derived Products, Shale-oils and Soots. Lyon, France: IARC, 1985; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 35: 83–159.
Schoket B, Poirier MC, Vincze I. Biomonitoring of geno-toxic exposure in aluminum plant workers by determination of DNA adducts in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Sci Total Environ 1995; 163: 153–63.
Van Schooten FJ, Jongeneelen FJ, Hillebrand MJX, et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in white blood cell DNA and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine from aluminum workers: relation with job category and synergistic effect of smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev1995; 4: 69–77.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Aluminium production. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 3, Industrial Exposures in Aluminium Production, Coal Gasi-fication, Coke Production, and Iron and Steel Founding. Lyon, France: IARC, 1984; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 34: 37–64.
Armstrong BG, Tremblay CG, Cyr D, Thériault GP. Estimating the relationship between exposure to tar volatiles and the incidence of ladder cancer in aluminum smelter workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1986; 12: 486–93.
Milham S Jr. Mortality in aluminumreduction plant workers. J Occup Med 1979; 21: 475–80.
Giovanazzi A, D'Andrea F. Cause di morte fra i lavoratori di un impianto di riduzione elettrolitica di allumina. Med Lav 1981; 4: 277–82.
Andersen A, Dahlberg BE, Magnus K, Wannag A. Risk of cancer in the Norwegian aluminium industry. Int J Cancer 1982; 29: 295–8.
Rockette HE, Arena VC. Mortality studies of aluminum reduction plant workers: potroom and carbon department. J Occup Med 1983; 25: 549–57.Cancer risk from PAHs Cancer Causes and Control. Vol 8. 1997 467.
Gibbs GW. Mortality of aluminum reduction plant workers, 1950 through 1977. J Occup Med 1985; 27: 761–70.
Mur JM, Moulin JJ, Meyer-Bisch C, Massin N, Coulon JP, Loulergue J. Mortality of aluminium reduction plant workers in France. Int J Epidemiol 1987; 16: 257–64.
Spinelli JJ, Band PR, Svirchev LM, Gallagher RP. Mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum reduction plant workers. J Occup Med 1991; 33: 1150–5.
Carta P, Cocco PL, Flore C, Pau M, Grussu M, Cherchi P. Mortalità nei lavoratori della fonderia di alluminio primario di Portovesme in Sardegna. Med Lav 1992; 83: 530–5.
Armstrong B, Tremblay C, Baris D, Thériault G. Lung cancer mortality and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: a case-cohort study of aluminum production workers in Arvida, Quebec, Canada. AmJ Epidemiol 1994; 139: 250–62.
Ronneberg A, Andersen A. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers from an aluminium smelter with prebaked carbon anodes - Part II: Cancer morbidity. Occup Environ Med 1995; 52: 250–4.
Tremblay C, Armstrong B, Thériault G, Brodeur J. Estimation of risk of developing bladder cancer among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in the primary aluminum industry. Am J Ind Med 1995; 27: 335–48.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Coal gasification. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 3, Industrial Exposures in Aluminium Production, Coal Gasification, Coke Production, and Iron and Steel Founding. Lyon, France: IARC, 1984; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 34: 65–99.
O'Donovan WJ. Epitheliomatous ulceration among tar workers. Br J Dermatol Syphilis 1920; 32: 215–28.
Henry SA. Occupational cutaneous cancer attributable to certain chemicals in industry. Br Med Bull 1947; 4: 389–401.
Ross P. Occupational skin lesions due to pitch and tar. Br Med J 1948; ii: 369–74.
Bruusgaard A. Occurrence of certain forms of cancer in gasworkers (in Norwegian). T Norsk Laegefor 1959; 79: 755–6.
Doll R, Vessey MP, Beasley RWR, et al. Mortality of gas workers - final report of a prospective study. Br J Ind Med1972; 29: 394–406.
Manz A. Atem-und Harnwege als Lokalisationsstellen berufsbedingter (Teer-) Karzinome bei Kokerei-und Rohrnetzarbeitern. VDI-Berichte 1980; 358: 227–35.
Hansen KS, Viskum S, Pedersen MS. Dødelighed blandt gasvaerksarbejdere. Ugeskr Laeger 1986; 148: 610–2.
Gustavsson P, Reuterwall C. Mortality and incidence of cancer among Swedish gas workers. Br J Ind Med 1990; 47: 169–74.
Berger J, Manz A. Cancer of the stomach and the colon-rectum among workers in a coke gas plant. Am J Ind Med 1992; 22: 825–34.
Doll R. The causes of death among gas-workers with special reference to cancer of the lung. Br J Ind Med 1952; 9: 180–5.
Doll R, Fisher REW, Gammon EJ, et al. Mortality of gas-workers with special reference to cancers of the lung and bladder, chronic bronchitis, and pneumoconiosis. Br J Ind Med 1965; 22: 1–12.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Coke production. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 3, Industrial Exposures in Aluminium Production, Coal Gasi-fication, Coke Production, and Iron and Steel Founding. Lyon, France: IARC, 1984; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 34: 101–31.
Braszczynska Z, Lindscheid D, Osinska R. Evaluation of the influence of new technologies in coke industry on aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons concentrations in ambient air (in Polish). Med Pr 1978; 29: 357–64.
Jackson JO, Warner PO, Mooney TF Jr. Profiles of benzo[a]pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles at and in the immediate vicinity of a coke oven battery. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1974; 35: 276–81.
Lloyd JW, Lundin FE Jr, Redmond CK, Geiser PB. Long-term mortality study of steelworkers. IV. Mortality by work area. J Occup Med 1970; 12: 151–7
Costantino JP, Redmond CK, Bearden A. Occupationally related cancer risk among coke oven workers: 30 years of follow-up. J Occup Environ Med 1995; 37: 597–604.
Reid DD, Buck C. Cancer in coking plant workers. Br J Ind Med 1956; 13: 265–9.
Sakabe H, Tsuchiya K, Takekura N, et al. Lung cancer among coke oven workers: a report to Labour Standard Bureau, Ministry of Labour, Japan. Ind Health 1975; 13: 57–68.
Davies GM. A mortality study of coke oven workers in two south Wales integrated steelworks. Br J Ind Med 1977; 34: 291–7.
Hurley JF, Archibald RMcL, Collings PL, Fanning DM, Jacobsen M, Steele RC. The mortality of coke workers in Britain. Am J Ind Med 1983; 4: 691–704.
Wu W. Occupational cancer epidemiology in the People's Republic of China. J Occup Med 1988; 30: 968–74.
Swaen GMH, Slangen JJM, Volovics A, Hayes RB, Schef-fers T, Sturmans F. Mortality of coke plant workers in the Netherlands. Br J Ind Med 1991; 48: 130–5.
Franco F, Chellini E, Seniori Costantini A, et al. Mortality in the coke oven plant of Carrara, Italy. Med Lav 1993; 84: 443–7.
Chau N, Bertrand JP, Mur JM, et al. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers. Br J Ind Med 1993; 50: 127–35.
Verma DK, Muir DCF, Cunliffe S, et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ontario foundry environments. Ann Occup Hyg 1982; 25: 17–25.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Iron and steel founding. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 3, Industrial Exposures in Aluminium Production, Coal Gasification, Coke Production, and Iron and Steel Founding. Lyon, France: IARC, 1984; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 34: 133–90.
Schimberg RW, Pfäffli P, Tossavainen A. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foundries. J Toxicol Environ Health1980; 6: 1187–94.
Koskela RS, Hernberg S, Kärävä R, Järvinen E, Nurminen M. A mortality study of foundry workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1976; 2(Suppl 1): 73–89.
Tola S. Epidemiology of lung cancer in foundries. J Toxicol Environ Health 1980; 6: 275–80.
Gibson ES, Martin RH, Lockington JN. Lung cancer mortality in a steel foundry. J Occup Med 1977; 19: 807–12.
Finkelstein MM, Wilk N. Investigation of a lung cancer cluster in the melt shop of an Ontario steel producer. Am J Ind Med 1990; 17: 483–91.
Finkelstein MM, Boulard M, Wilk N. Increased risk of lung cancer in the melting department of a second Ontario steel manufacturer. Am J Ind Med 1991; 19: 183–94.
Finkelstein MM. Lung cancer among steelworkers in P. Boffetta et al Cancer Causes and Control. Vol 8. 1997. Ontario. Am J Ind Med 1994; 26: 549–57.
Breslin P. Mortality among foundrymen in steel mills. In: Lemen R, Dement JM, eds., Dusts and Disease. Park Forest South, IL (USA): Pathotox Publishers, 1979: 439–47.
Redmond CK, Wieand HS, Rockette HE, Sass R, Weinberg G. Long-term Mortality Experience of Steelworkers. Cin-cinnati, OH (USA): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH Research Report), 1981.
Decouflé P, Wood DJ. Mortality patterns among workers in a gray iron foundry. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 109: 667–75.
Andjelkovich DA, Mathew RM, Richardson RB, Levine RJ. Mortality of iron foundry workers: I. Overall findings. J Occup Med 1990; 32: 529–40.
Andjelkovich DA, Mathew RM, Yu RC, Richardson RB, Levine RJ. Mortality of iron foundry workers: II. Analysis by work area. J Occup Med 1992; 34: 391–401.
Andjelkovich DA, Shy CM, Brown MH, Janszen DB, Levine RJ, Richardson RB. Mortality of iron foundry workers: III. Lung cancer case-control study. J Occup Med1994; 36: 1301–9.
Hansen ES. Cancer mortality among Danish molders. Am J Ind Med 1991; 20: 401–9.
Sherson D, Svane O, Lynge E. Cancer incidence among foundry workers in Denmark. Arch Environ Health 1991; 46: 75–81.
Rotimi C, Austin H, Delzell E, Day C, Macaluso M, Honda Y. Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers. Am J Ind Med 1993; 24: 485–98.
Sorahan T, Faux AM, Cooke MA. Mortality among a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1946–90. Occup Environ Med 1994; 51: 316-22.
Xu Z, Pan GW, Liu LM, et al. Cancer risks among iron and steel workers in Anshan, China, part I: Proportional mortality ratio analysis. Am J Ind Med 1996; 30: 1–6.
Xu Z, Brown LM, Pan GW, et al. Cancer risk among iron and steel workers in Anshan, China, part II: Case-control studies of lung and stomach cancer. Am J Ind Med 1996; 30: 7–15.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Diesel and gasoline engine exhausts. In: Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts and Some Nitroarenes. Lyon, France: IARC, 1989; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 46: 41–185.
Waller RE. Trends in lung cancer in London in relation to exposure to diesel fumes. Environ Int 1981; 5: 479–83.
Edling C, Anjou CG, Axelson O, Kling H. Mortality among personnel exposed to diesel exhaust. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1987; 59: 559–65.
Balarajan R, McDowall ME. Professional drivers in London: a mortality study. Br J Ind Med 1988; 45: 483–6.
Paradis G, Thériault G, Tremblay C. Mortality in a his-torical cohort of bus drivers. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 397–402.
Hrubec Z, Blair AE, Rogot E, Vaught J. Mortality Risks by Occupation Among U.S. Veterans of Known Smoking Status, 1954–1980. Bethesda, MD (USA): National Institutes of Health, 1992; Pub. No. 92-3407.
Alfredsson L, Hammar N, Hogstedt C. Incidence of myo-cardial infarction and mortality from specific causes among bus drivers in Sweden. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 57–61.
Menck HR, Henderson BE. Occupational differences in rates of lung cancer. J Occup Med 1976; 18: 797–801.
Rafnsson V, Gunnarsdóttir H. Mortality among profes-sional drivers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1991; 17: 312–7.
Borgia P, Forastiere F, Rapiti E, et al. Mortality among taxi drivers in Rome: a cohort study. Am J Ind Med 1994; 25: 507–17.
Morton WE, Treyve EL. Histologic differences in occupational risks of lung cancer incidence. Am J Ind Med 1982; 3: 441–57.
Boffetta P, Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Diesel exhaust expo-sure and mortality among males in the American Cancer Society prospective study. Am J Ind Med 1988; 14: 403–15.
Steenland NK, Silverman DT, Hornung RW. Case-control study of lung cancer and truck driving in the Teamsters Union. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 670–4.
Hansen ES. A follow-up study on the mortality of truck drivers. Am J Ind Med 1993; 23: 811–21.
Gubéran E, Usel M, Raymond L, Bolay J, Fioretta G, Puissant J. Increased risk for lung cancer and for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract among Geneva professional drivers. Br J Ind Med 1992; 49: 337–44.
Costa G, Faggiano F, Lagorio S. Mortalità per professioni in Italia negli anni’ 80. Rome, Italy: ISPESL, 1995.
Pukkala E. Cancer risk by social class and occupation: a survey of 109,000 cancer cases among Finns of working age. Basel, Switzerland: Karger, 1995; Contributions to Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 7.
Howe GR, Fraser D, Lindsay J, Presnal B, Yu SZ. Cancer mortality (1965–77) in relation to diesel fume and coal exposure in a cohort of retired railway workers. JNCI 1983; 70: 1015-9.
Schenker MB, Smith T, Muñoz A, Woskie S, Speizer FE. Diesel exposure and mortality among railway workers: results of a pilot study. Br J Ind Med 1984; 41: 320–7.
Garshick E, Schenker MB, Muñoz A, et al. A case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135: 1242–8.
Garshick E, Schenker MB, Muñoz A, et al. A retrospective cohort study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 82–5.
Hrubec Z, Blair AE, Vaught J. Mortality Risks by Industry among U.S. Veterans of Known Smoking Status 1954–1980. Bethesda, MD (USA): National Institutes of Health, 1995; Pub. No. 95-2747.
Nokso-Koivisto P, Pukkala E. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers. Occup Environ Med 1994; 51: 330–4.
Wong O, Morgan RW, Kheifets L, Larson SR, Whorton MD. Mortality among members of a heavy construction equipment operators union with potential exposure to diesel exhaust emissions. Br J Ind Med 1984; 42: 435–48.
Gustafsson L, Wall S, Larsson LG, Skog B. Mortality and cancer incidence among Swedish dock workers - a retrospective cohort study. Scand J Work Environ Health 1986; 12: 22–6.
Emmelin A, Nyström L, Wall S. Diesel exhaust exposure and smoking: a case-control referent study of lung cancer among Swedish dock workers. Epidemiology 1993; 4: 237–44.
Rushton L, Alderson MR, Nagarajah CR. Epidemiological survey of maintenance workers in London Transport Executive bus garages and Chiswick Works. Br J Ind Med 1983; 40: 340–5.
Gustavsson P, Plato N, Lidström EB, Hogstedt C. Lung cancer and exposure to diesel exhaust among bus garage workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1990; 16: 348–54.
Van den Eeden SK, Friedman GD. Exposure to engine exhaust and risk of subsequent cancer. J Occup Med 1993; 35: 307–11.
Maclaren WM, Hurley JF. Mortality of tar distillation workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1987; 13: 404–11.
Moulin JJ, Mur JM, Wild P, Demonchy A, Eloy E, Jeannot A. Etude épidémiologique de mortalité parmi les salariés d'une usine de distillation des goudrons de houille. Rev Epidém Santé Publ 1988; 36: 99–107.
Bogovski P. Historical perspectives of occupational cancer. In: Vainio H, Sorsa M, Hemminki K, eds., Occupational Cancer and Carcinogenesis. Washington DC: Hemisphere, 1981: 921–39.
Miller BG, Cowie HA, Middleton WG, Seaton A. Epidemiologic studies of Scottish oil shale workers: III. Causes of death. Am J Ind Med 1986; 9: 433–46.
Karlehagen S, Andersen A, Ohlson CG. Cancer incidence among creosote-exposed workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1992; 18: 26–9.
Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Lawther PL, Seidman H. In-halation of benzpyrene and cancer in man. Ann NY Acad Sci 1976; 271: 116–24.
Hansen ES. Cancer incidence in an occupational cohort exposed to bitumen fumes. Scand J Work Environ Health1989; 15: 101–5.
Henry SA, Kennaway NM, Kennaway EL. The incidence of cancer of the bladder and prostate in certain occupations. J Hyg1931; 31: 125–37.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Shale-oils. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 4, Bitumens, Coal-tars and Derived Products, Shale-oils and Soots. Lyon, France: IARC, 1985; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 35: 161–217.
Scott A. On the occupation cancer of the paraffin and oil workers of the Scottish shale oil industry. Br Med J 1922; ii: 1108–9.
Rom WN, Krueger G, Zone J, et al. Morbidity survey of U.S. oil shale workers employed during 1948–1969. Arch Environ Health 1985; 40: 58-62.
Selden A. Shale oil workers: absence of lung cancer hazard replicated. Am J Ind Med 1987; 11: 485–7.
Cookson HA. Epithelioma of the skin after prolonged exposure to creosote. Br Med J 1924; i: 368.
Axelson O, Kling H. Mortality among wood preservers with creosote exposure (in Swedish) [Abstract]. In: 32nd Nordic Occupational Hygiene Conference. Solna, Sweden: Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health), 1983: 125–6.
Flodin U, Fredriksson M, Persson B. Multiple myeloma and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and creosote: a case-ref-erent study. Am J Ind Med 1987; 12: 519–29.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Bitumens. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 4, Bitumens, Coal-tars and Derived Products, Shale-oils and Soots. Lyon, France: IARC, 1985; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 35: 39–81.
Partanen T, Boffetta P. Cancer risk in asphalt workers and roofers: review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Am J Ind Med 1994; 26: 721–40.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Carbon black. In: Printing Processes and Printing Inks, Carbon Black and Some Nitro Compounds. Lyon, France: IARC, 1996; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk ChemHumans, Vol. 65: 149–262.
Hodgson JT, Jones RD. A mortality study of carbon black workers employed at five United Kingdom factories between 1947 and 1980. Arch Environ Health 1985; 40: 261–8.
Robertson J McD, Inman KJ. Mortality in carbon black workers in the United States. Preliminary report. J Occup Environ Med 1996; 38: 569–70.
Robertson J McD, Ingalls TH. A mortality study of carbon black workers in the United States from 1935 to 1974. Arch Environ Health 1980; 35: 181–6.
Robertson J McD, Ingalls TH. A case-control study of circulatory, malignant, and respiratory morbidity in carbon black workers in the United States. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J1989; 50: 510–5.
Teta MJ, Ott MG, Schnatter AR. Population based mortality surveillance in carbon products manufacturing plants. Br J Ind Med 1987; 44: 344–50.
Moulin JJ, Wild P, Mur JM, et al. Risk of lung, larynx, pharynx and buccal cavity cancers among carbon electrode manufacturing workers. Scand J Work Environ Health1989; 15: 30–7.
Gustavsson P, Bellander T, Johansson L, Salmonsson S. Surveillance of mortality and cancer incidence among Swedish graphite electrode workers. Environ Res 1995; 70: 7–10.
Evanoff BA, Gustavsson P, Hogstedt C. Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: an extended follow up study. Br J Ind Med 1993; 50: 450–9.
Kjuus H, Andersen A, Langård S. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide. Br J Ind Med1986; 43: 237–42.
Pott P. Chirurgical Observations Relative to the Cataract, the Polypus of the Nose, the Cancer of the Scrotum, the Different Kinds of Ruptures and the Mortification of the Toes and Feet. London, UK: T.J. Carnegy, 1775: 63–8.
Hansen ES, Olsen JH, Tilt B. Cancer and non-cancer mortality of chimney sweeps in Copenhagen. Int J Epidemiol 1982; 11: 356–61.
Cadez E. Ergebnisse langjähriger Untersuchungen über den Einfluss von Schadstoffen auf die Gesundheit von Schorn-steinfegern. Staub Reinhalt Luft 1983; 43: 116–7.
Siemiatycki J. Risk Factors for Cancer in the Workplace. Boca Raton, FL (USA): CRC Press, 1991.
Parent ME, Siemiatycki J, Renaud G. Case-control study of exposure to carbon black in the occupational setting and risk of lung cancer. Am J Ind Med1997 (in press).
Williams RR, Stegens NL, Goldsmith JR. Associations of cancer site and type with occupation and industry from the Third National Cancer Survey Interview. JNCI 1977; 59: 1147–85.
Decouflé P, Stanislawczyk K, Houten L, Bross IDJ, Viadana E. A Retrospective Survey of Cancer in Relation to Occupation. Cincinnati, OH (USA): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1977.
Blot WJ, Brown LM, Pottern LM, Stone BJ, Fraumeni JF Jr. Lung cancer among long-term steel workers. Am J Epidemiology 1983; 117: 706–16.
Milne KL, Sandler DP, Everson RB, Brown SM. Lung cancer and occupation in Alameda county: a death certificate case-control study. Am J Ind Med 1983; 4: 565–75.
Coggon D, Pannett B, Acheson ED. Use of job-exposure matrix in an occupational analysis of lung and bladder cancers on the basis of death certificates. JNCI 1984; 72: 61–5.
Damber L, Larsson LG. Professional driving, smoking, and lung cancer: a case referent study. Br J Ind Med 1985; 42: 246–52.
Buiatti E, Kriebel D, Geddes M, Santucci M, Pucci N. A case control study of lung cancer in Florence, Italy, I, Occupational risk factors. J Epidemiol CommHealth 1985; 39: 244–50.
Coggon D, Pannett B, Osmond C, Acheson ED. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract. Br J Ind Med 1986; 43: 332–8.
Schoenberg JB, Stemhagen A, Mason TJ, Patterson J, Bill J, Altman R. Occupation and lung cancer risk among New Jersey white males. JNCI 1987; 79: 13–21.
Hayes RB, Thomas T, Silverman DT, et al. Lung cancer in motor exhaust-related occupations. Am J Ind Med 1989; 16: 685–95.
Blot WJ, Davies JE, Morris Brown L, et al. Occupation and the high risk of lung cancer in northeast Florida. Cancer1982; 5: 364–71.
Correa P, Pickle L, Fontham E, et al. The causes of lung cancer in Louisiana. In: Mizell M, Correa P, eds., Lung Cancer Causes and Prevention. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Chemie International, 1984: 83–9.
Lerchen ML, Wigginis CL, Samet JM. Lung cancer and occupation in New Mexico. JNCI 1987; 79: 639–45.
Benhamou S, Benhamou E, Flamant R. Occupational risk factors of lung cancer in a French case-control study. Br J Ind Med 1988; 45: 231–3.
Ronco G, Ciccone G, Mirabelli D, Troia B, Vineis P. Oc-cupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 354–8.
Zahm SH, Brownson RC, Chang JC, Davis JR. Study of lung cancer histologic types, occupation, and smoking in Missouri. Am J Ind Med 1989; 15: 565–78.
Boffetta P, Harris RE, Wynder El. Case-control study on occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer risk. Am J Ind Med 1990; 17: 577–91.
Spinelli JJ, Gallagher RP, Band PR, Threlfall WJ, Raynor D, Schellekens H. Occupational associations among British Columbia male cancer patients. Can J Public Health 1990; 81: 254–8.
Burns PB, Swanson GM. The occupational cancer incidence surveillance study (OCISS): risk of lung cancer by usual occupation and industry in the Detroit metropolitan area. Am J Ind Med 1991; 19: 655–71.
Yamaguchi N, Kido M, Hoshuyama T, et al. A case-control study on occupational lung cancer risks in an industrialized city of Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1992; 83: 134–40.
Morabia A, Markowitz S, Garibaldi K, Wynder EL. Lung cancer and occupation: results of a multicentre case-control study. Br J Ind Med 1992; 49: 721–7.
Jöckel KH, Ahrens W, Wichmann HE, et al. Occupational and environmental hazards associated with lung cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1992; 21: 202–13.
Notani PN, Shah P, Jayant K, Balakrishnan V. Occupation and cancers of the lung and bladder: a case-control study in Bombay. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 185–91.
Brownson RC, Alavanja MCR, Chang JC. Occupational risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking women: a case-control study in Missouri (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 449–54.
Keller JE, Howe HL. Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking Illinois residents. Environ Res 1993; 60: 1–11.
Wu-Williams AH, Xu ZY, Blot WJ, et al. Occupation and lung cancer risk among women in northern China. Am J Ind Med 1993; 24: 67–79.
Bovenzi M, Stanta G, Antiga G, Peruzzo P, Cavallieri F. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk in a coastal area of northeastern Italy. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993; 65: 35–41.
Vineis P, Magnani C. Occupation and bladder cancer in males: a case-control study. Int J Cancer 1985; 35: 599–606.
Baxter PJ, McDowall ME. Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the cancer atlas. Br J Ind Med 1986; 43: 44–9.
Coggon D, Pannett B, Osmond C, Acheson ED. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. II. Non-respiratory cancer. 1986; 43: 381–6.
Steenland K, Burnett C, Osorio AM. A case-control study of bladder cancer using city directories as a source of occupational data. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126: 247–57.
Risch HA, Burch JD, Miller AB, Hill GB, Steele R, Howe GR. Occupational factors and the incidence of cancer of the bladder in Canada. Br J Ind Med 1988; 45: 361–7.
Schumacher MC, Slattery ML, West DW. Occupation and bladder cancer in Utah. Am J Ind Med 1989; 16: 89–102.
Bonassi S, Merlo F, Pearce N, Puntoni R. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 648–51.
Steineck G, Plato N, Gerhardsson M, Norell SE, Hogstedt C. Increased risk of urothelial cancer in Stockholm during 1985–87 after exposure to benzene and exhausts. Int J Cancer 1990; 45: 1012-7.
Burns PB, Swanson GM. Risk of urinary bladder cancer among blacks and whites: the role of cigarette use and occupation. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 371–9.
Dolin PJ, Cook-Mozaffari P. Occupation and bladder cancer: a death-certificate study. Br J Cancer 1992; 66: 568–78.
Kunze E, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R. Life style and occupational risk factors for bladder cancer in Germany: a case-control study. Cancer 1992; 69: 1776–90.
Clavel J, Mandereau L, Limasset JC, Hémon D, Cordier S. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydro-carbons and the risk of bladder cancer: a French case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1994; 23: 1145–53.
Ahrens W, Jöckel KH, Patzak W, Elsner G. Alcohol, smoking, and occupational factors in cancer of the larynx: a case-control study. Am J Ind Med 1991; 20: 477–93.
Kubasiewicz M, Starzynski Z. Case-referent study on skin cancer and its relation to occupational exposure to poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Study design. Pol J Occup Med 1989; 2: 221–8.
Kubasiewicz M, Starzynski Z, Szymczak W. Case-referent study on skin cancer and its relation to occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. II. Study results. Pol J Occup Med 1991; 4: 141–7.
Gallagher RP, Bajdik CD, Fincham S, et al. Chemical exposures, medical history, and risk of squamous and basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev1996; 5: 419–24.
Jensen OM, Knudsen JB, McLaughlin JK, Sørensen BL. The Copenhagen case-control study of renal pelvis and ureter cancer: role of smoking and occupational exposures. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 557–61.
Sharpe CR, Rochon JE, Adam JM, Suissa S. Case-control study of hydrocarbon exposures in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Can Med Assoc J 1989; 140: 1309–18.
Partanen T, Heikkila P, Hernberg S, Kauppinen T, Moneta G, Ojajärvi A. Renal cell cancer and occupational exposure to chemical agents. Scand J Work Environ Health 1991; 17: 231–9.
Mandel JS, McLaughlin JK, Schlehofer B, et al. Interna-tional renal-cell cancer study. IV. Occupation. Int J Cancer 1995; 61: 601–5.
Fishbein L. Sources, nature and levels of air pollutants. In: Tomatis L, ed. Indoor andOutdoor Air Pollutionand Human Cancer. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1993: 17–66.
Pershagen G. Passive smoking and lung cancer. In: Samet J, ed. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer. New York, NY (USA): Marcel Dekker, 1994: 109–29.
Pershagen G, Simonato L. Epidemiological evidence on outdoor air pollution and cancer. In: Tomatis L, ed. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution and Human Cancer. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1993: 135–48.
Hemminki K, Pershagen G. Cancer risk of air pollution: epidemiological evidence. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102(Suppl 4): 187–92.
Pope CA, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, et al. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151: 669–74.
Heinrich U, Fahst R, Rittinghausen S, et al. Chronic inhalation exposure of Wistar rats and two different strains of mice to diesel engine exhaust, carbon black, and titanium dioxide. Inhal Toxicol 1995; 7: 533–56.
Nikula KJ, Snipes MB, Barr EB, Griffith WC, Henderson RF, Mauderly JL. Comparative pulmonary toxicities and carcinogenicities of chronically inhaled diesel exhaust and carbon black in F344 rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1995; 25: 80–94.
Mumford JL, He XZ, Chapman RS, et al. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China. Science 1987; 235: 217–20.
He XZ, Chen W, Liu Z, Chapman RS. An epidemiological study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei county, China: current progress. Case-control study on lung cancer and cooking fuel. Environ Health Perspect 1991; 94:9.
Gao YT, Blot WJ, Zheng W, et al. Lung cancer among Chinese women. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 604–9.
Wu-Williams AH, Dai XD, Blot W, et al. Lung cancer among women in north-east China. Br J Cancer 1990; 62: 982–7.
Liu ZY, He XZ, Chapman RS. Smoking and other risk factors for lung cancer in Xuanwei, China. Int J Epidemiol1991; 20: 26–31.
Wu AH, Henderson BE, Pike MC, Yu MC. Smoking and other risk factors for lung cancer in women. JNCI 1985; 74: 747–51.
Simonato L, Pershagen G. Epidemiological evidence on indoor air pollution and cancer. In: Tomatis L, ed. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution and Human Cancer. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1993: 119–34.
Lewtas J, Gallagher J. Complex mixtures of urban air pollutants: identification and comparative assessment of mutagenic and tumorigenic chemicals and emission sources. In: Vainio H, Sorsa M, McMichael AJ, eds. Complex Mix-tures and Cancer Risk. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1990; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 104: 252–60.
Lewtas J, Lewis C, Zweidinger R, Stevens R, Cupitt L. Sources of genotoxicity and cancer risk in ambient air. Pharmacogenetics 1992; 2: 288–96.
Lewtas J. Complex mixtures of air pollutants: characterizing the cancer risk of polycyclic organic matter. Environ Health Pers 1993; 100: 211–8.
Yamagiwa K, Ichikawa K. On the experimental production of papillomas [in German]. Verh Jpn Pathol Ges 1915; 5: 142–8.
Cook JW, Hewett C, Hieger I. Coal tar constituents and cancer. Nature 1932; 130: 926.
World Health Organization. Polynuclear aromatic hydro-carbons (PAH). In: Air Quality Guidelines for Europe.Copenhagen, Denmark: WHORegional Office for Europe, 1987; WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 23: 105–17.
Armstrong B, Thériault G. Compensating lung cancer victims employed in aluminum production plants [Abstract No. 126]. Epidemiology 1995; 6: S125.
Redmond CK. Epidemiological studies of cancer mortality in coke plant workers. In: Seventh Conference on Environmental Toxicology, 1976. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 1976; AMRL-TR–76-125: 93-107.
Pott F. Pyrolytic emissions, profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk - data and evaluation (in German). Staub Reinhaltung der Luft 1985; 45: 369–79.
US Environmental Protection Agency. Carcinogenic Assessment of Coke Oven Emissions. Washington, DC: EPA, 1984; Final Report No. EPA-600/6–82-003F.
Perera F, Mayer J, Santella RM, et al. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens. Environ Health Persp 1991; 90: 247–54.
Kogevinas M, Boffetta P, Pearce N. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in developing countries In: Pearce N, Matos E, Vainio H, Boffetta P, Kogevinas M, eds. Occupational Cancer in Developing Countries. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1994; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 129: 63–95